To be in top gear is always good for the gearbox and the car, providingit's done in the right way: if not, an unpleasant grating noise could wellbe the end product, and that is definitely bad for both the car and thegearbox!
This is also very true of verb tenses used in the wrong way. They grateterribly, either on the eyes or the ears of the listener, whichever isthe first victim!
The 'straight' future tense is very simple in Volapük:
By adding the single letter o- to the beginning of the verb,we express the future, that is, an event which has notyet occurred, but which is expected to occur in the judgment of theperson who is speaking or writing.
On the other hand, the single letter u- at the beginning of theverb brings out idea of the future event already having occured!Here are a couple of examples:
Odelo (= tomorrow) ologob oli = I shall see you(no doubt at all!)
Klu (= therefore) ulogob oli = I shall (already)have seen you!!
Take particular note of the word meaning "tomorrow" above. Delis not a verb, as you know, but a noun which means "day"; by addingo- to such an idea of time, the future aspect is likewiseadded to it - the final -o has nothing to do with the future, of course,it merely tells us that the word is an ADVERB: "on the day to come".
The PASSIVE FORMS work just as before: they simply add the singleletter p- to the two vowels shown above, therefore:
Pologol fa ob = you will be seen by me
Pulogol fa ob = you will have beensseen by me
Still at full speed ahead, we can now even consider going into overdrive,and issue a few orders (commands) to our various friends and neighbours.We must not be tempted to throw our weight about too much, however, lestwe damage our vehicle or lose most of our passengers!
COMMANDS are formed by the addition of -ÖD to thewhole verb form:Logomöd! = Let him see! (= He shall see!)
There's no doubt about the meaning of these 'orders': like it or not,they are all intended to be obeyed! Can you see, each time, how the ending-ÖD is added to give the idea of authority? This is calledthe IMPERATIVE MOOD and whatever mood you happen to be in at thetime, you are expected to 'jump to it'! A much nicer way of giving out'orders' is called the OPTATIVE MOOD. You simply add the ending-ÖS in exactly the same way: it is much more polite,and means:Logomös! = May he see!
Welcome to the sixth part of our rapid, inter-active course of VOLAPÜKVIFIK, in which we start, as usual, with some more words for you topractise out loud:
anik = several as sam = for example asoaro = this evening balido = firstly bäldikün = eldest begö! = (if you) please benolabik = wealthy bevü = amongst cal = a profession cifik = chief, main da = throughout dat = so that degtelid = twelfth demü = on account of dö = about, in dot = a doubt dramat = drama drogan = a chemist fiam = a firm gased = a magazine glofön = to grow gudikum (ka) = better (than) jünu = up to now ka = than kedet = a line (in a letter) kis? = what? klavan = a typist ko = with kod = a reason lä = at, with lätikün = latest lifayels = years of age lü = to (= direction)
literat = literature livüpajäf = a hobby lölik = whole lunedikum (ka) = slimmer (than) medinav = medicine (=science) musig = music nitedälön (dö) = to be interested (in) notedil = a small advertisement nutimik = contemporary penedamäk = a postage stamp penön = to write plidön = to like poedav = poetry pospenäd = a postscript pöpajul = a primary school profäsoran = a lecturer pük = a language seimik = any spelabo = hopefully spodan = a correspondent spodön (ko) = to correspond (with) spot = a sport sunädo = at once, immediately täno = then (= after which) tefü = regarding tiädü = entitled tuvifiko = too fast ünü = within (a time) valik = all vedön = to become vög = a voice xam = an examination zesüdik = necessary
PENED LÜ HISPODAN
Tü del degtelid yulula, yela 19...
O flen Viktor!
Ereidob in gased lätikün tiädü «Vög Volapüka»,das vilol spodön ko flens da vol lölik.
Epenol in notedil ola, das nitedälol dö dins mödik, assam: spots, penedamäks, poedav, läns e püks valasotiks...e das no spodol atimo ko jiflen seimik.
Binob Janin: labob lifayelis degvel, e lödob in dom gretik. Bü yels jöl, fat obik äbinom profäsoran, ab anu binom büsidan benolabik! Labom bäldoti yelas mödikum ka foldegas. Mot obik binof tidan in pöpajul, e binof yunikum ka om. Plidof vemo cali at! Labob blodis tel: eli Samül bäldotü yels degzül, kel binom bäldikün de blods oba, ed eli Peter, bäldotü yels zül, kel binom yunikünan (do nen dot ovedom lunedikum ka ob, bi glofom tuvifiko!) Jünu ebinob klavan lä fiam veütik: ünü yels tel, ovisitob niveri ad studön medinavi, bi vilob vedön drogan:täno ugetob xamis zesüdik oba.
Ed ol, kisi dunol-li calo? Livüpajäfs cifik oba binons: musig, dramat e literat se läns valik!
Penolös obe sunädo, begö, dat okanobs gudikumo seivönodi!
Glidis gudikün ole ed olikanes
(sedof) Janin (jispodan balid ola, spelabo)
Pospenäd: Kikodo no nog labol-li jifleni bevü spodans olik?
1. After reading through this letter, why not make your own translationof it?
2. Note: Labom bäldoti yelas mödikum ka kildegas = He's inhis thirties.
WRITE: He's in his forties; she's in her fifties; I'm in my sixties.