An introduction to the various bits and pieces of Volapük is now opportune. Several of these you have met already, but now you havethe chance to have an overall look at the various categories into which they fall, thus giving added colour and variety to the language:
Interjections (bringing all sorts of emotions out into the open), such as:
Ooh! Nonsense! Aha! Hey! Wow! Oh no! Oh yes! I say! Hurrah! Look! Bye!
Ag! Fi! Ha! He! Ö! Nö! Si! Sö! Yö! Ekö! Adyö!
What's more, any other suitable words can also be made into interjections simply by adding the final vowel -ö. For example:
Thanks! Of course! Dear me! Look out! Shut up! Get a move on! Halt! Make way!
Danö! Fumö! Liedö! Prüdö! Seilö! Spidö! Stopö! Zedö!
Conjunctions (joining up different words and sentences), such as:
but, because, though, while, and, if, than, so, neither...nor, or, even if, moreover
Ab, Bi, Do, Du, E, If, Ka, Klu, Ni ... Ni, U, Üf, Zu
Again, any other suitable words can also be made into conjunctions simply by adding the final vowel -ä, for example:
provided that, before, on the other hand, by reason of which, only when,
Bisä Büä Güauml; Kodä Pasä
Prepositions (bridging the gap between a word and its neighbour noun or pronoun):
through, of/from, under, by, in front of, into, according to, by means of, without, with
Da, De, Dis, Fa, Fo, Ini, Ma, Me, Nen, Ko
Yet again, any other suitable words can also be made prepositions by the simple addition of -ü, for example:
with regard to, at the house of, in favour of, in the name of, near to, made of, comprising
Demü, Domü, Gönü, Nemü, Nilü, Binü, Labü
Always remember that in Volapük all prepositions govern the Nominative case!
Last of all, although adverbs are normally characterized by the ending -o, they do also have their very own rogues amongst the bits and bobs,for example:
always, perhaps, also, here, extremely, more, only, almost, there, already, however
Ai, Ba, I, Is, Mu, Plu, Te, Ti, Us, Ya, Ye
all of them playing their own part in the whole -- in other words all bits and bobs!
Welcome to the fourth part of our rapid, interactive course in Volapük vifik in which we start, as usual, with some more words for you to practiseout loud:
ad = in order to ai = always asä = as also, as well as bakaston = a brick banacem = a bathroom binü = (made) of bumot = a building cim = a chimney dabinön = to exist demön = to demonstrate dese = from out of din = a thing (a matter) disnufaspadäd = a loft (space) do = though dustodik = industrial fenät = a window fidacem = a dining room flumed = a river fo = before (= place) gad = a garden garad = a garage gianagretik = enormous, gigantic härbat = a vegetable horit = (the) horizon is = here it = (one)self jonidön (as) = to serve (as) kipedöp = a store kleiliko = clearly, plainly klünacem = a cloakroom kvisinöp = a kitchen labü = comprising, having lavöp = a laundry legad = a (public) park len = at, by, on
löpik = upper, upstairs lotan = a guest lunik = long mens = people (in general) miotik = dirty mutön = to compel (= must) nen = without nilü = near to nog bal = one more, another nufalucem = an attic plöp = prosperity plöpön = to prosper po = behind (= place) pötet = a potato redik = red retik = remaining rop = interruption saidik = enough, sufficient sälun = a lounge se = out of seil = quietness, silence slipacem = a bedroom sököl = following sparag = asparagus tead = floor, storey tefü = about, regarding tö = at, on tuvön = to find tvalet = a lavatory, a toilet us = there valasotik = all (kinds) vidik = broad, wide voböp = a workplace yad = a yard zilo = enthusiastically, hard
1. Read aloud, then translate the following story into English:
Dom obsik topon len flumed nilü zifil dustodik. Do dabinons legadse bumots nulädiks, tö horit mens ai elogons cimis gianagretik miotik, kels edemons kleiliko plöpi zifila. Is mutoy zilo vobönad plöpön!
In dom obsik labobs cemis sököl: lavöp, kvisinöp, fidacem, sälun asä tvalet e klünacem pro lotans e visitans votik.
Slipacems fol binons in tead löpik, asä banacem e tvalet nog bal pro famülans.
In nufalucem, fat obik ed ob it kanobs tuvön seili saidik ad studön e vobön nen rop mödik.
Dese fenät smalik us, logoy fo dom luniki gadi vidik labüflors, bims e härbats; po dom logoy yadi, asä garadi binü bakastons, in kel binon i voböp.
Disnufaspadäd retik jonidon as kipedöp pro dins votik valasotik.
2. The verb ending -oy means "one" as in: logoy = one sees. It is always singular. Can you make five other such examples?
3. The tiny particle -li? shows that a question has been asked. It is always unemphasized. It is tacked onto the end of a verb where this exists; if there isn't one, it is tacked onto the most relevant of the other words. A very useful way of avoiding ambiguity! Note two useful expressions: no-li? = isn't it? and vo-li? = is that so? How would you translate: Tö horit-li? Esagof-li?
4. Answer the following questions on the above in Volapük:
Kiöpo (= Where) topon-li dom hiela Samül? Kisi (=What) logoy-li tö horit? Cemis liomödotik (= how many) laboy-liin dom? Kisi logoy-li dese fenät smalik nufalucema? E disnufaspadädretik-li?
5. Now answer the following questions about your own residence in Volapük:
Kiöpo topon-li dom olik? Cems liomödotik dabinons-li domüol? Labol-li nufalucemi? Kisi kipol-li (= keep) in spadäd dis nuf? Kisi logoy-li fo dom olik? Labol-li garadi e voböpi u studacemi? Desefenät gretik olik, kisi logoy-li po dom?