THE INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE


HAND-BOOK

OF

V O L A P Ü K

BY CHARLES E. SPRAGUE

Member of the Academy of Volapük -- President of the Institute of Accounts

NEW YORK:

THE OFFICE COMPANY,


LONDON: TRÜBNER & CO.

CHICAGO: S. R. WINCHELL & CO.


1888




COPYRIGHT, 1887, BY CHARLES E. SPRAGUE


TRUNK BROS., PRINTERS,
NEW YORK.


PREFACE.


THIS book demands no previous knowledge of any language, except English. While linguistic training would, of course, be a great assistance to the learner, yet in framing my explanations, in selecting terms and in foreseeing difficulties, I have had in view the wants of persons who take up the study of Volapük next after that of their mother tongue. These are the persons most to be benefited by an international language, and this is its natural place in a course of study. I have, therefore, rigidly excluded all reference to any language except the two in question--English, already known, and Volapük, to be acquired. A fair knowledge of English grammar is presupposed ; therefore I have not wasted space in explaining the ordinary technical terms.

There are excellent works on the subject in French, German and other languages, but translations of such works are very unsatisfactory to an American learner. He finds things taken for granted which are quite unknown, and things explained which to him are self-evident. I have tried to place myself in the attitude of such a learner, and to give him just the help he needs, and just at the point where he needs it. I have tested and modified my methods by experimental teaching.

I have not followed the ancient custom of treating each part of speech by itself, but have taken up each modification in succession, a plan which seems to me preferable, at least in a language without irregularities. In the Exercises, few words are introduced, but many combinations are made of them, so as to give the greatest amount of drill in the inflections. As English has almost no inflection, this feature is the strangest and most difficult, and requires the most practice.

The Vocabulary will place at command over one thousand of the most frequently occurring words, besides a vast number of their derivatives which will be readily understood.

I have made no changes in the system itself, but have tried to represent faithfully what it actually is, following the authority of the Second General Assembly held in Munich this summer.

Upon the recommendation of the American Philological Association and of the London Philological Society, I have dropped the final e, misleading and unhistorical, from such words as "infinitiv," "feminin," etc.

CHARLES E. SPRAGUE.

1271 Broadway, New York.


CONTENTS.


PAGE
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................
v
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK...................................................................................................................
viii
SOUNDS AND LETTERS........................................................................................................................
1
PARTS OF SPEECH.................................................................................................................................
4
NUMBERS................................................................................................................................................
5
CASES.......................................................................................................................................................
6
PERSONS..................................................................................................................................................
10
GENDERS..................................................................................................................................................
14
FORMATION OF ADJECTIVS..............................................................................................................
15
FORMATION OF ADVERBS..............................................................................................................
20
DEGREES OF COMPARISON................................................................................................................
21
TENSES......................................................................................................................................................
21
PASSIV VOICE..........................................................................................................................................
23
INFINITIV..................................................................................................................................................
23
PARTICIPLE..............................................................................................................................................
25
IMPERATIV..............................................................................................................................................
26
CONDITIONAL. CONJUNCTIV AND POTENTIAL..........................................................................
27
INTERROGATIV FORM.........................................................................................................................
28
FREQUENTATIV OR AORIST...............................................................................................................
29
REFLEXIV..................................................................................................................................................
30
PREPOSITIONS AND THE KIMIFAL..................................................................................................
31
SYNOPSIS OF INFLECTION..................................................................................................................
33
USE OF PREPOSITIONS.........................................................................................................................
34
DERIVED PREEPOSITIONS....................................................................................................................
35
FORMATION OF INTERJECTIONS.....................................................................................................
35
USE OF CONJUNCTIONS AND ADVERBS .......................................................................................
35
ORDER OF WORDS.................................................................................................................................
37
IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS..................................................................................................................
39
DERIVATION OF WORDS.....................................................................................................................
41
.....COMPOUNDS......................................................................................................................................
42
.....PREFIXES.............................................................................................................................................
42
.....SUFFIXES.............................................................................................................................................
44
.....EXAMPLE OF DERIVATION............................................................................................................
47
VOTAMS FA LASAM VALEMIK TELID...........................................................................................
48
ABRAHAM E BÄLEDAN......................................................................................................................
49
MODEL OF TRANSLATION AND GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS................................................
49- 60
SPODAM...................................................................................................................................................
61- 63
LILÄDAM ................................................................................................................................................
64- 66
VOCABULARY.........................................................................................................................................
67-113
KEY TO THE EXERCISES.......................................................................................................................
114-119

INTRODUCTION.


VOLAPÜK is designed to serve as a means of communication between persons whose native languages are not the same. Such a medium has long been regarded as desirable. The hope has often been expressed that one of the great national languages may, by common consent, be selected as a "universal language" ; but there is not the slightest probability that this great advantage will be voluntarily given to one nation, or that any one of the great powers can ever impose its language on others.

Volapük is one of numerous attempts at solving the problem of a common language. Without entering into a discussion of their merits, it is sufficient to say that no other attempt has ever passed beyond the experimental stage or been actually used, to any considerable extent, for the communication of thought. Volapük has now become so widely diffused that it can no longer be treated as a mere project, and some acquaintance with its history and the general principles of its construction will be desired by educated persons.

This "world-language" was invented and first published in 1879 by JOHANN MARTIN SCHLEYER, a German, and a priest of the Roman Catholic Church, who had become a very accomplished linguist. The system is entirely his production, and has not been modified in any essential point.

His aim was, first, to produce a language capable of expressing thought with the greatest clearness and accuracy ; second, to make its acquisition as easy as possible to the greatest number of human beings. He resolved to seek these ends by observing the processes of the many languages with which he was acquainted ; following them as models wherever they are clear, accurate and simple, but avoiding their faults, obscurities and difficulties.

The material and the form, or the dictionary and the grammar, call upon different mental faculties. One's stock of words is retained by exercise of the memory. Therefore the radicals or root-words were generally so chosen by him from existing languages, that the greatest number of persons might have the fewest unfamiliar words to memorize. Since English is spoken as a mother-tongue by more millions than any other language he took from it more root-words, with or without modification, than from any other, or about 40 per cent. of the whole. The selection is limited by such considerations as brevity, distinctness and ease of utterance -- difficult and unusual sounds and combinations being excluded.

Thus, in selecting a word for the idea man, the English word is found very suitable, especially as it is substantially the same in all other Teutonic tongues ; and it has been adopted, but sounded as in German. The word house, or haus, for the idea or a dwelling, is found objectionable for several reasons: the h is to be avoided because unpronounceable by some nations,

and the s is already appropriated for the plural termination. The Teutonic roots being barred out, recourse is had to the Latin, and dom is selected. We are also familiar with this in English, as in domestic. In hand again we have the same trouble with h and also with the two consonants coming together, the plural hands being unpronounceable by certain peoples. The Latin root man- will not help us here, because man is already appropriated. Therefore, the transposed form nam is adopted, slightly assisting the memory.

As to grammar, the first requisite is regularity, and the second is simplicity. There was before the inventor a choice between the inflectional and the analytical modes ; whether to express the relations between words by modifications in form, or by separate words as connectivs. He inclined to the former, and his language is rather inflectional than analytical. It has four cases: the nominativ, being the unmodified form, and the genitiv, dativ and accusativ, designated by vowel endings. In selecting these endings the inventor has greatly aided the memory by employing the first three vowels, a, e, i, in their regular order. In the verb, the distinctions of tense are denoted by the vowel series, a, ä, e, i, o, u, at the beginning, while the persons are distinguished by affixing the pronouns, ob, I, ol, thou, etc. A prefixed p marks the passiv voice. The remaining inflectional forms are provided for by simple and regular terminations.

For some time after the Schleyer's grammar, his adherents were few, and his project was ignored by the scientific and literary world. It spread first to Austria where it awakened considerable interest, and where the first society for its propagation was formed at Vienna in 1882. Until 1884 its adherents outside of the German-speaking countries were very few and scattered. In that year it invaded Holland and Belgium, and a great many societies sprang up in those countries. In 1885, Dr. Auguste Kerckhoffs, Professor in the School of Higher Commercial Studies, at Paris, introduced it to the French nation by several articles, lectures and treatises. This created a great sensation in France and a strong National Association "pour la propagation du Volapük" was formed, which numbers such men as Francisque Sareey, Emile Gauthier, and Dr. Allaire.

Prof. Kerckhoffs aroused enthusiasm, not only in France, but in other countries where his works were circulated. Spain was the next, followed by Italy and Portugal. During 1885 and 1886 the countries of the north -- Sweden, Denmark and Russia -- also received the new language. Thus, the extension of Volapük has been geographical, and the English-speaking peoples are the last of the great European races to be affected by it. In each country, as a rule, its popularization has immediately followed the publication of a grammar peculiarly suited to its people.

Prof. Kerckhoffs, some months ago, estimated the number of persons who have studied Volapük at 210,000. This may be somewhat too high, but the number is certainly very large. In Vienna alone, the classes during the winter of 1886-7 were attended by 2,500 students. 138 societies for its cultivation have been organized in different places.

Eleven periodicals are now published, devoted primarily to Volapük, at Constance, Breslau, Madrid, Paris, Vienna, Munich, Puerto-Rico, Stockholm Aabybro (Denmark), and Antwerp, the youngest being four months old, and the oldest, six years. Most of these contain articles in the language of the country, as well as in Volapük ; but three of them, one being a humorous paper, are exclusively in Volapük.

The bibliography of the subject (as given at length in "Le Volapük," No. 10) comprises 96 books in 13 languages. This does not include articles in periodicals, nor Schleyer's single-sheet compendiums in various languages, nor works merely announced as fortheoming.

Two General Assemblies, or Congresses, of the advocates or Volapük, have been held: the first at Friedrichshafen, in August, 1884 ; the second at Munich, in August, 1887. The third is to take place at Paris, probably in August, 1889.

The Congress of 1887 established a three-fold organization: a General Association of the supporters of Volapük (Volapükaklub Valemik) ; an Academy of Volapük (Kadem Volapüka) ; a Central Organ (Volapükabled Zenodik). Schleyer's own Weltspracheblatt, published at Constance, was designated as the organ, and its name has been changed accordingly. Each of these organizations has its officers, Schleyer remaining at the head of the whole movement. The Director of the Academy is Prof. Kerckhoffs ; his colleagues number, at present, 17, from various nations: Germany, Austro-Hungary, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Holland, England, the United States, Russia, Syria. The Academy is expected to edit the standard dictionary and grammar, to authorise new words, to adopt any necessary changes, and to give their sanction to approved works of instruction.

The most obvious application of Volapük is for international correspondence, especially commercial correspondence, which is numerically the most important. It will require no argument to convince the business world that a common language, if easily learned, and once established, will be an immense facilitation of commerce. This modest claim is all that is necessary to put forth on behalf of Volapük at present. If firmly established for this purpose, the extension of its usefulness into the fields of science, diplomacy and literature may safely be left to the future to determine, as well as whether it will ever be used by travelers. It will, in any event, be watched with great interest, and its rise and progress will form a novel and curious chapter of history.



HOW TO USE THIS BOOK.

The best test of having thoroughly learned any section of the book is the ability to read and write the corresponding exercise fluently and correctly. After doing this, the section should again be read, to see that all its directions are fully understood, but memorizing is not recommended.

Persons who are not trained in the study of languages had better not examin the "Synopsis of Inflections" until after they have mastered Exercise 25 with all before it. They are then recommended to make a Copy of the Synopsis, leaving blanks for the Volapük letters, which they will afterwards fill up from memory.

As additional practice, take at any time a few words of the Vocabulary and compose some Volapük sentences introducing those words, together with the other words and forms already known. Try to compose in Volapük from the idea, without thinking of the English way of expressing it. Take the Volapük sentences given in the exercises as frames, and fit in other nouns, verbs and adjectives.

For teaching classes, I recommend blackboard lessons, based on the exercises and preceding the study of the text. Each lesson should embrace review-practice on foregoing sections and preparatory exercise on coming subjects. Oral lessons for schools, entirely inductiv, will be published hereafter.

Linguists or philologists who desire to obtain a general knowledge of the structure of the language can do so by an hour's study of the fable of "Abraham and the Old Man," with the "Model of Translation and Grammatical Analysis" referring to the Synopsis of Inflection.



HAND-BOOK OF VOLAPÜK.


SOUNDS AND LETTERS.

The Alphabet of Volapük consists of the following letters:
a ä b c d e f g h i j k i m n o ö p r s t u ü v x y z.

These are the same as in English, omitting q and w and adding ä ö ü.

The following have their English sounds:

b, in book.
d, in dog.
f, in fame.
h, in hat.
k, in keep.
l, in low.
m, in me.
n, in no.
r, in ray.
t, in tea.
v, in vain.
x, in box.
g is sounded as in go, never as in George.
s is usually sounded as in sole ; but in such combinations as bs, ds, gs, ls, it is softened to a z-sound as in rose ; just as happens in the English words, tubs, eggs.
y is always a consonant, as in yet.
j is sounded like sh.
c is sounded like j in judge.
z is sounded like ts.

The vowels have one invariable sound each ; not as in English, where each vowel has several sounds and each sound has many representatives.

a as in papa, psalm, far, father.
ä as in care, fair.
e as in they, obey.
i as in machine, be.
o as in go.
ö as in word, sir.
u as in rude, rood.
ü has nothing like it in English. The lips being protruded as if to say u (oo), try to say i (ee).
Some English words spelt, as nearly as possible, in Volapük letters:

A public functionary, cöc. A fowl, gus. The act of selling, sel. Parts of the hand, pam, nels. Animals, jip, got, käz.

The accent is always on the last syllable, exclusiv, however, of a syllable joined to it with a hyphen. -li and -la are the only syllables so hyphenized. Ex.: getòm ; getòm-li ? getòm-la.

Two vowels coming together are sounded in separate syllables ; as laut (la-ut), geil (gay-eel), sied (see-aid).

In writing and printing Volapük a system of punctuation is employed which differs slightly from ours, as follows:

The quotation-marks are ,,---'' instead of "---".

The exclamation-point is used after a simple address, as well as after an ejaculation. Where we write

Dear Sir,
Volapükists would write Dear Sir !
The use of capitals is the same as in English, except that nouns and adjectivs derived from proper nouns do not begin with capitals, nor do any pronouns. In our language we print
Frenchman, France, French."
in Volapük ,,flentel, Flent, flentik."
In this book, we print Volapük words and sentences in heavier type.

In learning to pronounce Volapük, the first difficulty is to avoid sounding the vowels a e i o u like their English names A E I O U.

Always think of them and speak of them by their Volapük names. Originally they had the same sounds in English.

The Volapük syllables pa pe pi po pu
are not to be read pay pea pie Po pew
but like the English syllables, pa pay pea Po poo (shampoo)
Read them over carefully seyeral times, then drop the p sound and repeat
a e i o u
The adding of another consonant at the end does not change the vowel sound ; therefore, pet is pronounced pate (not pet) ; pit is pronounced pete (not pit) ; pot rhymes with goat, not with got ; put rhymes with boot, not with but, nor with foot.

When you meet with a new Volapük word do not "jump" at its pronunciation by guessing what the letters might spell in English, but consider each sound. If necessary to analyze it, do so in the following manner: begin at the last vowel ; sound it alone ; prefix a consonant ; affix another consonant, if any until the last syllable is sounded ; then build up another syllable in the same way ; sound the two together, accenting the last, then the next syllable, sounding all three, and so on.

Thus, to read the word Volapükatidel:

e,
A.
de,
day.
del,
dále.
i,
E.
ti,
tea.
tidel,
tea-dále.
a,
ah.
ka,
kah.
katidel,
kah-tea-dále.
ü,
---
pü,
pü.
pükatidel,
pükáh-teadále.
a,
ah.
la,
lah.
lapükatidel,
lah-pükáh-teadále.
o,
oh, owe.
vo,
vo.
Volapükatidel,
voláh-pükáh-teadále.

PARTS OF SPEECH.

There are in Volapük the following Parts of Speech: Noun, Pronoun, Adjectiv, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection. Their uses are the same as in English.

There are no Articles in Volapük.*

The grammatical distinctions are: Number, Gender, Case, Person, Degree, Tense, Mood, Voice.

These distinctions are marked by adding a sound or a syllable at the beginning or end of the simple root-form. In English we often mark them by separate words. Thus the one word pulogoms stands for the five words, they will have been seen. They is indicated by the ending oms ; will have been by the syllable pu at the beginning ; log is the simple root-form, and means, as a noun, eye, but as a verb, to see. Pu and oms may be analyzed thus: u as a verb-prefix (or tense augment, as it is called) indicates the future-perfect ; p is the sign of the passiv voice. In oms, s denotes the plural ; m denotes the masculin third person ; o is characteristic of all person endings and unites them to the verb.

When no such distinctiv syllables are added it is understood that

the number is singular ;
the gender is masculin ;
the case is nominativ ;
the person is the third ;
the degree is positiv ;
the tense is present ;
the mood is indicativ ;
the voice is activ.
Nouns have number, gender and case.

Pronouns have number, gender, case and person.

Verbs have number, gender, person, tense, mood and voice.

Adjectivs and adverbs have degree.

Adjectivs may also have the inflections of nouns, but this is seldom required.



* Anyone may convince himself of possibility of dispensing with articles by reading aloud any extract. Omission of articles will be found not to obscure sense. In telegrams, articles are seldom used.

NUMBERS.

The simple form is the singular number.

The plural number always ends in s.

Man, a man ; plural, mans, men. (Man may also be translated, the man, or simply, man. The articles an, a, and the are always omitted.) Vom, the woman ; voms, the women. Ob, I ; obs, we. Om, he ; oms, they.

Ol, thou or you ; ols, ye or you. In English, you is sometimes singular and sometimes plural. In addressing one person, ol should be used ; while ols is used for two or more.

The numerals are always placed after the thing numbered.

Man bal, one man. Mans tel, two men, Voms kil, three women.

The first nine numerals end in l, preceded by the vowels in regular order.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
bal tel kil fol lul mäl vel jöl zül
The tens are formed by adding s.
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
bals tels kils fols luls mäls vels jöls züls
Numbers composed of tens and units unite the two parts by ,e', and, balsebal, 11 ; balsetel, twelve ; telsebal, 21 ; lulsevel, 57 ; zülsezül, 99.

Tum, hundred ; mil, thousand ; balion, million ; these are preceded by one of the digits. Baltum, 100 ; teltum, 200. Kilmil, 3000 ; folmil foltum, 4400 ; lulmil lultum lulselul, 5555.


EXERCISE 1.

VOCABULARY.
Buk, book. Dom, house. Man, man. Pul, boy.
Del, day. E, and. Mug, mouse. Vig, week.
Doab, dollar. Gan, goose, (pronounce moog) Yel, year.
Dog, dog. Jip, sheep. Mul, month
1. Put all the above nouns into the plural, giving the English meaning of each.

2. Express in Volapük : books, days, men, houses. mice, months, geese, boys, weeks, dollars.

3. Would you use ol or ols in the following sentences ?: "Are you an American ?" "Will you take seats ?"

4. Read these numbers in Volapük: 2, 5, 33, 42, 3, 41, 6, 25, 50, 75, 100, 7, 77, 777. 7777, 8, 18, 6, 99. 15, 13, 64, 51, 84, 77, 333, 1887, 12.

5. Express in Volapük, aloud : 5 men (remember the order is 'men five') ; 3 boys ; 12 years ; $20 ; 10 years ; 3 months ; 6 mice . $50 ; 16 houses ; 3000 books ; 100 sheep ; 55 boys ; 32 years and 10 months ; 7 days ; one week ; 30 days, one month ; 365 days ; 12 months ; 52 weeks, one year ; $2769.

6. Read aloud, thinking of the meaning, Mans bals ; gan bal ; obs ; muls kil ; doms fol ; yels baltum ; jips tel ; mugs zül ; doabs balsetel ; buks teltum ; muls balsetel ; yel bal ; dels kiltum mälselul ; yel bal ; ols ; obs tel.

7. Give the English of each of the above phrases.

It is not sufficient to go through these exercises once ; they should be repeated again and again, until they can be spoken with the greatest rapidity.

Each Volapük exerclse is to be first read aloud, thinking of the meaning, but not of the English words. Then it should be translated into English, the translation written down and compared with the key. After a time the key should be translated back again and compared with the original.


CASES.

The case endings are the first three vowels,
-A. -E. -I.
in the plural -AS. -ES. -IS.
For example,
1. Kim ? who ?
2. Kima ? Whose ? of whom ?
3. Kime ? to whom ?
4. Kimi ? whom ?
The names of the cases are : ,,kimfal, kimafal, kimefal, kimifal," taken from the cases of kim, with the word ,,fal," meaning "case."

1. The kimfal, who-case or nominativ, is the simple form without any added vowel. It answers the question, "Who ?" It is usually translated by the English nominativ.

2. The kimafal, or whose-case, ending in a, is the answer to the question, "Whose?" or "Of whom?" It is usually translated by the possessiv (----'s) or by "of." Fat mana; the man's father or the father of the man. The kimafal is sometimes called the genitiv.

3. The kimefal, or to-whom-case, ends in e and answers the question "to whom ?" It is usually translated by to with the objectiv; but frequently we omit the to ; thus we say "I gave an apple to the boy," or "I gave the boy an apple." "Boy " would be in the kimefal as expressing the indirect object of the action. The kimefal is sometimes called the dativ case.

4. The kimifal, or whom-case, ends in i, answers to the question "Whom ?" and denotes the direct object. In the sentence just given "apple" would be in the kimifal. It corresponds nearly to the English objectiv. It is sometimes called the accusativ.

SUMMARY OF THE CASES.

As to endings :

l. --. 2. -a 3. -e 4. -i
As to names :
l. Kimfal. 2. Kimafal. 3. Kimefal. 4. Kimifal.
Or, after the classical style :
l. Nominativ. 2. Genitiv. 3. Dativ. 4. Accusativ.
Answering the questions
l. Who ? 2. Whose ? 3. To whom ? 4.Whom ?
Denoting usually
l. The Subject. 2. The Possessor. 3. The Indirect Object. 4. The Direct Object.
Translated by
l. The Nominativ. 2. The Possessiv or of 3. to. 4. The Objectiv.
The kimfal, preceded by the interjection ,,o" and followed bv an exclamation point, is used in addressing a person: ,,o sol!" "Sir." This is sometimes considered as a separate case, called the kimofal or vocativ. It seems, however, better to consider it a nominativ independent, as in English.

,,o" is sometimes omitted in this case.

Prepositions regularly govern the kimfal. Thus, we express "near me" by ,,nilü ob," not ,,nilü obi" nor ,,nilü obe;" "out of the house," ,,se dom," not ,,se doma" nor ,,se domi."

Occasionally, the kimifal will be found after a preposition instead of i at the end of tbe preposition itself, as will be explained hereafter.

A word used elliptically, like "good-morning," "thanks," "my compliments," is usually in the kimifal, a verb being understood as, [I wish you] good-morning, [I return] thanks, [I present] my compliments.

Directions for translating into Volapük:

The adjectiv has ordinarily no case-ending ; but occasionally it takes the case-endings of the noun which it qualifies. This is only done when the adjectiv, being out of its regular place, might be supposed to qualify some other word. Thus, dönan, meaning servant ; blod, brother, and fiedik, faithful.

Dünane fiedik bloda; or,
fiedike dünane bloda; or,
dünane bloda fiedike; to the faithful servant of the brother.

Dünane bloda fiedik; or,
dünane fiedika bloda; to the servant of the faithful brother.

But it is better to leave the adjectiv in its usual place.

EXERCISE 2.

DECLINING.-- To decline a noun is to give all its cases in regular order. Thus fat is declined :
fat fata fate fati
fats fatas fates fatis
Decline all the nouns in the vocabulary of Exercise 1. (Remember to accent the last syllable.)
Express the following in Volapük : Of the fathers, to the boys, of a man, to the dog, the geese.
VOCABULARY.
Givom, gives. Logom, sees.
Blinom, brings. Labom, has.
(Why these words end in om will be understood hereafter)
Nam, hand. Fut, foot. Fat, father.
Düp, hour. Mon, money. Log, eye.
Read in Volapük and translate into English :

Man labom dogi. Man labom dogis tel. Pul labom dogis tel e jipi bal. Dog logom gani. Pul logom dogi. Man givom dogi pule. Pul givom gani mane. Man givom doabis kil pule. Dog labom futis fol. Gan labom futis tel. Man labom futis tel e namis tel. Dog mana labom futis fol. Fat mana givom doabis kil pule. O fat ! man givom doab bal pule. Kim blinom dogis mane ? Pul blinom dogis mane. Kim labom moni ? Fat labom moni.

Answer in Volapük the following questions :

Kim labom dogi ?
Kim logom gani ?
Kim givom dogi pule ?
Kimi man givom pule ?
Kime man givom dogi ?

The last three questions may be answered by the same words differently emphasized.

CAUTION.--In translating into Volapük do not overlook the distinction between the subject and the object of the sentence. Put the subject in the kimal and the object in the kimifal. In the above exercises there is one ERROR in this respect, purposely left uncorrected. Did you notice it ?

Express the following sentences in Volapük. In each sentence there is at least one word which ought to be put in the kimifal.

Who has the dog ? The boy has two dogs [dogs 2]. The man has three dogs. The dog has four feet. The boy has two feet. Who has two hands ? The man gives money. The man gives money to the boy (or, the man gives the boy some money; some would not be translated). The boy's father [father of boy] gives a dollar to the man. The year has twelve months. The month has thirty days. The week has seven days. The day has 24 hours. Who brings the goose ? Who sees the dog ? Who sees the two sheep ? To whom does the man give money ? (Literally, to whom man gives money ? "Does" is untranslatable.) To whom does the boy bring money ? The boy brings five dollars to the father.


PERSONS.

The pronoun of the FIRST person is ob, I; plural, obs, we.

When the verb is in the first person the pronoun is united with it as a person ending, forming one word. Binob, I am;

pükob, I speak; kömobs, we come; golobs, we go.

The pronoun of the SECOND person is ol, thou or you (singular); ols, you, plural. See remarks on the distinction between ol and ols, page 5.

These syllables ol and ols are likewise suffixed to the verb, foming one word. Binol, thou art or you are; pükol, thou speakest or you speak; kömols flens, you, friends, are coming; golols, ye are going.

We may, also translate, "I am" by ob binob, and, "thou art" by ol binol; but this repetition of the personal syllable is unusual, and only employed for emphasis or when it is desired to place the subject at a distance from the verb.

In the THIRD person there are four pronouns: om for masculins and neuters, he, it; of for feminins, she; os, neuter impersonal or abstract; on, collectiv, one (as "one says"), people, "they." In the plural, oms and ofs, they.

These pronouns are also suffixed to the verb, binom, he is, it is ("IT" being some definit thing previously mentioned).
Pükof, she speals; golofs, they (the women) go; nifos, it snows; sagon, they say, people say, one says, it is said.

Even when the subject of the verb is a noun expressed, yet the om or of must be added : of for a feminin subject, om for any other. Vom binof jönik, the woman is beautiful. Man binom famik, the man is famous. Dom binom gletik (not dom binos gletik), the house is large. Doms binoms gletik, the houses are large. Jisons binofs yunik, the daughters are young.

We can now conjugate any verb through the persons of the present tense. ---

1. binob, I am. 1. binobs, we are.
2. binol, thou art, you are. 2. binols, you are.
3. binom, is, he is, it is. 3. binoms, are, they are.
binof, is, she is. binofs, are, they are.
binos, it is.
binon, one is, people are.

The mnemonic word OBOLOMOFOSON contains all the personal pronouns. If it be written from memory twenty times the verb endings will not be casily forgotten.

EXERCISE 3.

VOCABULARY.
Buk, book. Kömob, I come. Golob, I go.
Lilob, I hear. Binob, I am. Pükob, I speak.

Binob. Givob. Blinob. Pükob. Golob. Kömob. Labob buki. Givobs moni. Labobs bukis tel. Givob moni mane. Blinobs bukis pule. Blinobs bukis pula.

I speak. I go. I have the goose. We have the books. I have five books. We give money to the man. I give five dollars to the boy. We bring a dog to the man. I bring the books. I bring the boys' books. I bring books to the boys. We give books to the boys.

EXERCISE 4.

Labol buki. Pükol. Golol. Labols fati. Blinol buki obe. Blinob bukis ole. Givols moni pules. Kömols e golobs. Pükobs e lilobs.

(In the English exercises we shall print YOU in small capitals where it refers to more than one.) You have the book. you have books. You speak and we hear. You see the man. We come and YOU go. You come and I go. You have books. You give books to the boys. You speak to me. I give money to you. You give money to me. He comes. She goes. He gives money to the man. She has the book. He brings a dog to the boy. She speaks. He sees the man and the boy. He gives me money.

EXERCISE 5.

VOCABULARY.
Tid, instruction. Selob, I sell. Bod, bread.
Tidob, I teach. Lemob, I buy. Mit, meat.
Fidob, I eat. Tedel, merchant. Yeb, grass.
Dlinob, I drink. Vin, wine. Vom, woman.
Lilädob, I read. Vat, water.

Tidom. Kim tidom ? Man tidom. Selom bukis. Kim selom bukis ? Ob selob bukis. Givom moni. Kim givom moni ? Fat givom moni. Man tidom puli. Tedel selom bukis. Man dlinom vati. Vom dlinof vini. Kat fidom mugi. Pul fidom bodi.

Kis ? what ?

Kisi givom pule ? Givom moni e bodi pule. (Remember that, when the subject is not expressed, givom means he gives, or does he give ?) Kisi blinof mane ? Blinof vati. Kisi vom fidof ? Fidof bodi e dlinof vati. Kisi man fidom ? Fidom bodi e dlinom vini. Jip fidom yebi.

Supply the proper endings in the following sentences :

Man dlin-- vin--. Vom dlin-- vat--. Fat pul-- giv-- mon-- vom--. Mot blin-- bod-- pul--.

He comes. Who comes ? The man comes. He eats bread. I eat bread. He gives a dollar. Who gives a dollar ? The father gives a dollar. The man has a dog. The boy buys a book. The father drinks wine. The mother drinks water. The dog sees the cat. The boy buys bread. What does he eat ? He eats bread. Who eats bread ? What does she give to the boy ? She gives the boy money. What does the woman eat ? She eats bread and meat. The dog sees three sheep.

I eat meat, you eat bread; he drinks water, she drinks wine. We have books, YOU have eyes, they have ears.

EXERCISE 6.

Penob, I write. Pened, a letter (correspondence). Tonab, a letter (of the alphabet).

Tidoms. Kims tidoms ? Mans tidoms. Seloms bukis. Tedels seloms bukis pules. Laboms moni. Kims laboms moni ? Tedels laboms moni. Mans fidoms bodi e miti. Voms dlinofs vini e vati. Man penom penedi. Tedels penoms penedis. Puls penoms tonabis. Voms penofs penedis manes.

The dogs see the sheep. The sheep see the dog. The sheep sees the grass. The men write letters. The boys see the letters (a, b, c,). The women drink (not -oms) water. The men drink wine.

EXERCISE 7.

Nim, animal. Dlin, a drink. Fid, food. Dil, part.
Julel, scholar. Nif, snow. Töt, thunder. Sag, say.
Das, that.

(CAUTION.--After the verb to be, use the kimfal, not the kimifal.)

Man binom tedel. Vig binom dels vel (not binos). Del binom dil viga. Düp binom dil dela. Mul binom dil yela. Vat e vin binoms dlins. Nifos. Tötos. Logon nimis. Dlinon vati. Fidon bodi. Lilädon bukis.

The boy is a scholar. Dogs and sheep are animals. The day is a part of the year. Bread is food. Wine is a drink. Water is a drink. I am a merchant. You are a scholar. You are scholars. It thunders. One eats meat. It snows. One says (they say) that you are a scholar.

Supply the proper endings :-- Dog fid-- bod--. Dogs e jips bin-- nim--. Sagon das töt--. Logon das nif--.


GENDERS.

Om, he (it); of, she ; os, it; ji, female.

All nouns are considered as "masculin" unless expressly denoting females. What we call the neuter gender of nouns does not exist in Volapük. Thus of is used of female persons or animals; om is used---1st, of males; 2nd, of living beings whose sex is disregarded; 3rd, of lifeless or sexless things (it); os is it, speaking abstractly, where no noun is referred to, as,

It is fair weather.

Will you be faithful ? I swear it.

Ji- is a prefix (English, she) used to make nouns feminin, when the sex is to be specially pointed out.

A few words, easily recognised. are always feminin, as mot ( = jifat), vom ( = jiman), läd ( = jisöl), kun ( = jixol).

Other words, if relating to men, are masculin without any prefix; if relating to animals, the unprefixed word is common (indifferent) gender, the name or the male animal has the preflx om-, and the name of the female the prefix ji-. Jeval, horse; omjeval, stallion; jijeval, mare.

EXERCISE 8.

Flen, friend. Tidel, teacher. Jeval, horse.
Lautel, author. Lanel, angel. Viudel, widower.
Nelijel, Englishman. Sanel, physician. Blod, brother.
Vomül, Miss. Matel, husband. Maria, Mary.

Express in Volapük :

Lady-friend. Doctor's wife. Widow. Authoress. Miss Mary is an angel. Doctress. Mare. Sister. Englishwoman. Wife.


FORMATION OF ADJECTIVS.

The "cardinal" numeral adjectivs have been given under numbers.

The ordinal numerals, first, second, third, etc., end in id. First, balid; second, telid; tenth, balsid; eleventh, balsebalid; 377th, kiltumvelsevelid, written 377id. There is also an interrogation form, kimid ? "how-many-eth ?" or which we have in English no equivalent. ,,Del kimid mula binom ?" "What day of the month is it ?"


EXERCISE 9.

Balun, January. Telul, February.

In the same manner form the names of the months to September (Zülul) inclusive.

Balsul, October. Babul, November. Batul, December. Balüdel, Sunday. Telüdel, Monday, etc.

Exercises or translation :

Balul binom mul balid. Velul binom mul velid. Kilüdel binom del kilid viga. Batul binom mul balsetelid yela. Düp kilid. Düp kimid binom ? Binom düp balsid.

Saturday is the seventh day of the week. November is the eleventh month. It is four o'clock. (It is the fourth hour.)

POSSESSIV PRONOUNS.

The possessivs, my, mine, thy, thine, etc., may be rendered in two ways :

1. By the kimafal of the pronoun; fat oba, my father; fat obas, our father.

2. By the termination -ik, forming a possessiv adjectiv ; buk obik, my book; buks omsik, their books; buk at binom olik, this book is yours.

The kimafal is used when otherwise there would be too much repetition of the termination ik.


EXERCISE 10.

Nelijapük, English language. Flentapük, French language.

Nelijel, Englishman.

Flentel, Frenchman.
Sikod, therefore.

Tidel obik tidom pulis lul. Kim binom tidel ola ? Tidel obsik labom julelis telsefol. Pük obas binom nelijapük. Fat obik labom sonis kil e jisonis tel; sikod labob blodis tel e jiblodis tel. Binols cils lul. Fat obsik löfom cilis omik. Mot obsik löfof cilis ofa. Fat e mot obsik löfoms cilis omsik.

My teacher reads a book. Your father has four dogs. Who is YOUR teacher ? Our teacher is a Frenchman. Our father and mother love their children. Who is our father ? Our father is the husband of our mother. Your father and my mother are friends. My teacher's language [language of teacher mine] is French [French language]. Your teacher reads my books.

DEMONSTRATIVS.

The demonstrativ pronouns, which are used as adjectivs, and also by themselvs, are the following :

at, et, it, ot, ut; som.
Emphatic forms, ät, eit, iet, öt, üt; söm.

At, this; man at, this man; buks at, these books; del ät, this very day.

Et, that; pul et, that boy ; jipuls eit, those very girls.

It, -self, man it, the man himself ; vom it, the woman herself; ob it, I myself; obs iet, we, our own selves.

Ot, same; tidel ot, the same teacher, tid öt, just the same instruction.

Ut, that, before a relativ; man ut, kel vilom binön libik, that man (or the man) who wishes to be free.

Som, such; dog som, such a dog; kats söm, just such cats.

The emphatic forms are rarely used and may be dispenst with altogether.


EXERCISE 11.

Laned, country (not the city).

Län, country (a division of land).
Dom, house. Lödöp, dwelling.
Sevob, I know, am acquainted. Ab, but.
with (not, I know a fact). No, not, no.
Zif, town. Men, human being, person.
Lödob, I live, dwell. In, in (followed by the kimfal).

Dom at binom lödöp obsik. Man et labom cilis kil; sevob cilis ab no mani it. Zif at labom domis tum e menis veltum. Mans, voms e cils binoms mens. Sevol tideli e tedeli; ob sevob manis ot. Man ut, kel lödom in dom et, binom lautel, e penom bukis.

This country is mine. I live in that house. The men who live in that town know us. We live in the same town. These animals are horses.

THE RELATIV.

The relativ pronoun is kel, who, which, what. It has the force or a conjunction and a pronoun. It is used independently or as an adjectiv.

THE INTERROGATIV.

The interrogativ pronoun is kim ? kif ? kis ? when used independently, and kiom ? kiof ? kios ? when used as an adjectiv.

THE ADJECTIV IN -IK.

All other adjectivs are formed from nouns by adding the ending -ik. Gud, goodness; gudik, good. Löf, love; löfik, dear; löflik, lovely. Yel, year; yelik, pertaining to the year; yelsik, yearly. Any word with the end-syllable -ik is surely an adjectiv.


EXERCISE 12.

Sevob, I know. Läd, lady, Madam. Din, thing.
Lautob, I compose [a book].

Sevob mani, kel penom bukis at. Man, keli sevob, penom bukis at. Kirn penom bukis . Lautel. Kis binom lautel ? Lautel binom man ut, kel lautom bukis. Kif binof läd et, kel labof dogi ? Läd et binof jisanel B---; matel ofa binom sanel obsik.

I see the man who gives money to the boys. Who knows the author of this book ? The doctor's wife knows the man who is the author of the book. What is a merchant ? A merchant is a man who buys and sells things. Who is that woman ? That woman is a teacher, who teaches boys and girls.


EXERCISE 13.

Gudik, good.Badik, bad.Spelob, I hope.Gud, goodness.Bad, badness.Das, that.Lonedik, long.Blefik, short.Lad, heart.Manik, male, masculin.Jilik, female, feminin.Ladlik, hearty, cordial.Gletik, great, large.Smalik, small, little.Subsat, noun.Mödik, many, much.Neudik, neuter.Saunik, well, healthy.Nemödik, a few.Neit, night.Valik, all.Te, only.Löfik, dear, [beloved].Delidik, dear, [costly].Nedelidik, cheap.Ed, used before a vowel, means and.

Man at binom gudik. Mans gudik laboms flenis mödik.---O söl löfik! penob ole penedi blefik e spelob das binol saunik. Binob flen volapüka e sagon das volapük labom flenis mödik in lan olsik. --Men ut, kel labom ladi badik, labom neflenis mödik. --Subsats in nelijapük binoms manik, jilik e neudik; in volapük ed in flentapük binoms manik e jilik. ---In batul labobs delis blefik e neitis lonedik.

My dear friend ; [use kimafal to avoid repetition of -ik] Your letter is short and cordial. I have a few friends who write to me long letters.

CAUTION.---Adjectiv after noun. But with two adjectivs, you may put one before and one after, to avoid ik in Succession.. Give to the first the same termination as the noun. Ex.: "Of many men," ,,manas mödik;" of many good men," ,,mödikas manas gudik."

All good men have good hearts, and love good things. God is the father of all men [human beings]. All men who love God are good. God is the author of all good things. I am your cordial friend, who hopes that you are well. The letters which you write to us are short. Who is the lady to whom you write long letters? That lady is the wife of Doctor B---; she, herself, is not [no binof] a physician.


EXERCISE 14.

Hereafter, many of the words used in the exercises will have to be looked for in the vocabulary at the end of the book.

Si, yes. No, no or not; when it means not, it is placed next before the verb which is denied.

Lesi, yes indeed. Leno, not at all, by no means.

God no löfom menis badik. Mens badik no löfoms Godi.---Subsats in volapük no binoms neudik; laboms genis te tel, no kil. Dins nelifik binoms gena manik. ---Tedels, kels sevoms volapüki spodoms ko vol lölik. Kims sevoms volapüki ? Valiks mens estudik in vol lölik.

I do not see my three books. Which book [book which] is good ? This book is not bad. I have not many good books. How many genders are there in Volapük ? ["Genders how many are in Volapük ?" Omit "there" in "there is," "there are."] There are two genders [two genders are] in Volapük and in French ; there are three genders in English and in German. One (not bal, 1) studies Volapük in all countries of the whole world.


FORMATION OF ADVERBS.

Numeral adverbs, expressing repetition, are formed by adding na. Kilna, three times ; kilidna, the third time.

Adverbs are formed from adjectivs, and sometimes from other parts of speech by adding o, corresponding to the English -ly.

Vifik, quick ; vifiko, quickly.

Neit, night ; neitiko, nocturnally.

When the adverb ending in iko immediately follows the verb, o is sometimes omitted ;

gonom vifik (vifiko), he runs fast (swiftly).

It is much clearer, however, to retain the o.


EXERCISE 15.

Fidobs kilna in del, telsebalna in vig. Buk at tidom volapüki obe balidna. Man et, kel binom deutel, pükom nelijapüki badiko, ab sevom volapüki gudiko. Dels goloms vifix, e no labobs timi mödik.

The dog eats fast. You write well [goodly]. We speak Volapük badly. I write three letters twice in a week. We buy books cheaply ["cheaply" after "buy"]. we buy cheap boks. The merchant buys cheap and sells dear.

DEGREES.

To form the comparativ and superlativ degrees, the suffixes um, ün, are used.

Gudik, good ; gudikum, better; gudikün, best.

Gudiko, well; gudikumo, better, in a better manner; gudikün, in the best manner.

These endings um, ün, may be added even to nouns; flenün obik, my best friend. Binom solatum ka ob, he is more of a soldier than I.

Umo, üno, are used as separate words meaning in greater degree, in the greatest degree. Binom umo solat ka bolitel, he is more of a soldier than of a politician.


EXERCISE 16.

Ka, than. äs, as. Suno, soon.

Binob bäledikum ka om. Buk at binom gudikum ka et. Dom obsik no binom so gletik äs olsik : binom smalikum. Penol gudikumo ka ob. Binob flen ola divodikün. Spelob das binol in saun gudik, o flen divikük ! Volapük binom pük nefikulikün in vol lölik.

I am more healthy than you. I have larger hands than you. The dog has larget than the cat. What book is the best in the whole world ? I have not so many books as you, but I read more [books]. What is the easiest languain the whole world ? I do not know a language which is easier than Volapük.


TENSES.

Each of the tenses has one of the vowels as its peculiar sign: [a], ä, e, i, o, u,

for the present or patüp a
for the past (imperfect), or pätüp ä
for the perfect, or petüp e
for the past-perfect (pluperfect), or pitüp i
for the future, or potüp o
for the future perfect, or putüp u

These vowels when prefixed to the verb are called tense-signs or augments.

The present-sign, a, is omitted in the activ voice.

Binob, I am; äbinol, you were; ebinom, he has been; ibinof, she had been; obinos, it will be; ubinon, one will have been.

In English, most of the tenses are expressed by using the auxiliary verbs, have, shall and will; while in Volapük there are no such auxiliaries, the verb-form consisting of a single word.

The word "do" is used in English as an auxiliary denoting emphasis, as, "I do believe." In Volapük this cannot be translated otherwise than "I believe."

The same tense-vowels,

a, ä, e, i, o, u,
are used with some words other than verbs, when time is to be distinguished.
adelo, to-day.
ädelo, yesterday.
odelo, to-morrow.
udelo, day-after-tomorrow.
amulo, this month.
omulo, uyelo, etc. amulo,

EXERCISE 17.

Put the following words into all the tenses, giving the meaning or each :

Kömob. Golol. Getom. Nägof. Lömibos. Sagon. Labobs. Binols. Sumoms.

O flen divikün ! egetob penedi ola blefik e pidob das ebinol malädik. Spelob das uvedol suno saunikum e das ovisitol obis omulo.

Dear friend : the long letter, which you wrote to me, has pleased me (kimefal) very much. I hope that I shall soon have got better, and that I shall see you again next year.

THE PASSIV VOICE.

All the tenses of the passiv voice commence with the letter p. Therefore the passiv tense-augments are,

present pa- palöfob, I am loved.
imperfect pä- pälogol, you were seen.
perfect pe- peflapom, he has been struck.
pluperfect pi- piropof, she had been interrupted.
future po- posagos, it will be said.
future perfect pu- pununon, one will have been informed.

In English, a present passiv is often really perfect in signification; as, "the house is finished," ,,dom pefinom." On the other hand we use what is, apparently, an activ form in a passiv sense, as, "the house is building," meaning "the house is being built," ,,dom pabumom." In all such cases we must consider the sense and not the sound.


EXERCISE 18.

Fa, by.

Nelijapük papükom in Nelij, Pebaltats, Kanadän, Talop e läns votik. Volapük potidom in juls valik. Volapük pädatuvom fa söl Schleyer. Fluks poseloms delido ayelo; päseloms nedelido äyelo. Dom gletik pabumom in süt telsekilid.

Many children are educated in the schools or America; many have been educated and many will be educated. Books are sold by the merchant, whose store is in 42nd street. These books are not mine; they are sold. [Is this patüp ?] What language is spoken in America ?


THE INFINITIV.

The verbs given so far have been in the form which simply asserts, called the indicativ mood.

The infinitiv mood, or verb-noun, has the ending -ön. It is usually, though not always, preceded in English by to. In Volapük it may be in various tenses: patüp, petüp, potüp, or putüp.

Logön, to see. Elogön, to have seen.

Ologön, to be about to see (as we cannot say to shall).

Ulogön, to be about to have seen.

Liladön binos pöfüdik, to read is profitable.

Liladam binom pöfüdik, reading is profitable.

Notice that the neuter-impersonal verb, binos, is used with the infinitiv as subject.

Vilob liladön buki at, I wish to read this book.

Opöfüdos alime eliladön buki at, It will benefit every one to have read this book.

Kanob liladön, I can read.

The verbs may, can, must (called by some grammarians, signs of the potential mood), let, dare, etc., have no to after them in English, yet the verb following them is in the infinitiv.

Mutob pükön, I must speak (I am obliged to speak).

Dalob sagön, I may say (am permitted to say).

Letom puli golön, he lets the boy go; he allows the boy to go.

Konsälob olis kömön, I advise you to come.

Olemob buki al studön volapüki, I shall buy a book, to study Volapük.

Here "to" means "in order to." In this case the infinitiv must be preceded by al. To test (,,al blufön") whether al should be used or not, see if you can change the English phrase into an equivalent one containing "for," or if it answers the question "for what ?"

I shall buy a book (for what ?) to study Volapük.

Osegolob adelo al spatön, I shall go out to walk (for walking) to-day.

Eblibob in zif al lemön klotis, I have remained in the city in order to buy clothes.

No mutobs lifön al fidön, sod fidön al lifön, we must not live to eat, but eat to live.

The English verb-noun in -ing must be translated by the infinitiv.

Fidön zesüdos al lifön, eating is necessary for living.

The infinitiv, being a kind of verb-noun, may be declined, tho' this seldom occurs.

Löf studöna, the love of studying.

It is permitted to insert the personal pronouns before the ending -ön in order to indicate the subject.

Binobön u ne binobön ! [for me] to be or not to be !

The infinitiv in the passiv voice is formed in the same way, and is subject to the same rules.

Pamilagön, to be admired.

Pevunön, to have been wounded.

Pomatön, to be about to be married, to be going to be married.


EXERCISE 19.

Löfob fidön fluki. No vilob liladön bukis mödik, sod gudikis. Eseilön binos ofen gudikum ka epükön. Men nonik kanom nolön valikosi. Kim okanom numön stelis sila u tofis mela ? Binob in jul al studön, no al pledön. Olemob bukis al lenadön volapüki. Sötol studön volapüki al kanön pükön ko nets valik.

I like to read good books. I wish to see the stars. To read is better than to play. We ought to buy a house if we can buy it cheap. This man can read six languages and speak three; he likes to study and he has time to study. It is better to have loved and lost than not to have loved.


THE PARTICIPLE.

The participle is a verb-adjectiv. Its ending is -öl, corresponding to -ing, -ed. It may be in the activ or passiv voice, and in any tense, tho' the patüp, petüp and potüp are the most common.

Logöl, seeing.

Elogöl, having seen.

Ologöl, about to see, being about to see.

Palogöl, seen, being seen.

Pelogöl, seen, having been seen.

Pologöl, about to be seen.

It is often necessary to examin English passiv participles very carefully, to determine what tense they really signify.

The house seeri in the distance, dom palogöl in fog.

The house built on a rock, dom pebumöl su klif.

If we turn the sentence into the activ form it will be clearer. The house which we see in the distance. The house which some one has built (not is building) on a rock.

There is another form of the participle, slightly differing from the future, and having the augment ö instead of o. Its meaning is that which must or ought to do something, or that which must or ought to be done.

Öbinöl, that which ought to be.

Pöfinöl, to be finished.

Pöks pömenodöl, errors to be corrected.

Pöks pomenodöl, errors which will be corrected.


EXERCISE 20.

O söl pelestimöl ! Elilädöl vobuki ola nitedik, e no kanöl kapälön dilis anik, penob ole penedi at al säkön va vilol seplanön obe setis suköl.

Honored Sir : Having received your letter and not having and time to write to you this week, I hope that you will excuse the unavoidable (not-to-be-avoided) delay.


THE IMPERATIV.

The ending of the simple imperativ is öd, following the person-ending.

Gololöd! Go ! (to one person.)

Gololsöd! Go ! (to more than one person.)

Pafögivolsöd! Be ye forgiven !

Lit binomöd ! Let there be light ! (Be light !)

Senitonöd! Pay attention ! (indefinitely.)

There are two modifications of the imperativ, the courteous or softened form in -ös and the harsh form in -öz; called by some grammarians the optativ and the jussiv. The former expresses a request and the latter a positiv command.

EXERCISE 21.

Give four dollars to this poor boy. Please excuse the liberty which I take. Please visit us in our new house. Please answer this letter soon. Kill that snake! Remain in the house. Please mail me three copies of your new book. Accept my cordial salutations. Let each boy take his book and read.

Givolöd bodi mane pöfik. Kömolsös al visitön obis in dom obas nulik. Sekusadolös obe no egepükön penede olik sunumo. Gololöz se dom! Potolös obe samadis fol vödasbuka nelijik. Pul alik sumomöd peni okik e penomöd. Blibolös in gad.


THE CONDITIONAL AND CONJUNCTIV.

The conditional mood expresses something not as actually occurring, but as what would be, under a certain supposition. The conjunctiv is the mood, which expresses this supposition, preceded by if, if.

These two moods are formed by adding to the pätüp or pitüp the endings -öv and -la. The latter is written with a hyphen and the accent remains on the preceding syllable.

If äbinob-la liegik, äbinoböv givik, if I were rich I would be generous.

Ibinomöv givik, if ibinom-la liegik, he would have been generous if he had been rich.


THE POTENTIAL.

A form seldom used, but mentioned by Schleyer, has the ending -öx, and the meaning might possibly.

Pelomöx, he might possibly pay.

EXERCISE 22.

Älöfoböv mani at, if äbinom-la gudikum. If ägolobs-la vädelo al spatön, äbinosöv saunlik. If ägolols-la adelo al spatön, blinolsos buki nulik, keli äbonedob, de bukatedam. Binosöv gälod gletik obe, getön penedi lonedik de ol. If no äbinos-la so vamik, älöfoböv visitön flenis obsik in zif.

If I should see the teacher to-day I would give him tlnc book which he wishes to see. This book would be useful to you if you shonld wish to study the French language. If you had seen this man in the garden he would have spoken to you. If you should travcl in Europe you would hear many languages.


THE INTEROGATIV FORM.

In English we change an assertion into a question by changing the order of the words,

I have. Have I ?
He will go. Will he go ?
You have seen. Have you seen ?

But we seldom put a verb, unless an auxiliary, before the subject. We use, instead, the emphatic form with do.

You go. Do you go ? instead of Go you ?

He speaks. Does he speak ?

In Volapük the sign of the question is the syllable li, generally placed either before or after the verb and united to it by a hyphen. The accent of the verb is unchanged. Li should not be placed after the verb, when this would bring two l's or three consonants together, as li-binoms ? not binoms-li?

Man binom gudik, Man binom-li gudik ?
Labob, Labob-li ?
Ogoloms, Li-ogoloms ?
Elogols, Li-egolols ?

If the sentence contains an interrogativ word, such as, who ? which ? what ? how ? when ? where ? li is unnecessary.

Kim binom man at ? Who is this man ?

Man kiom binom at ? What man is this ?

Kipladi man at golom ? Where (whither) is this man going ?


EXERCISE 23.

Kikod ? why ? Kiplad or kiöp ? where ? Kipladi ? where (to what place) ? Kiüp or kitim ? when ? Liko ? how ? These are interrogativs which do not require -li.

Stadön, to be [in a certain state or condition], to do, as in "how do you do ?"

Liko stadol, o söl ! ? Stadob gudiko, danob ole (or danis). Li-ebinol lonedo in zif ? No lonedo, ekömob bletimo de Madrid. Binom-li Madrid zif jönik ? Binom lejönik; ilöfoböv blibön us lonedumo. Kiöp lom olik binom ? Lom obik binom in Boston, ab labob flenis mödik in zif at. Li-estudol flentapüki ? Estudob flentapüki ab no kanob pükön omi gudiko. Li.kapälol valikosi keli lilädol ? Si, o söl ! ti valikosi.

Have you seen my father to-day ? No, sir; is he not in the house ? Have you read the newspapers to-day ? I have not had time to read. How is your father to-day ? Thanks; he is (stadom) much better. His many friends will have much pleasure to know it.


THE FREQUENTATIV FORM OR AORIST.

When a verb refers to the habitual performance of an action, this may be indicated by adding the letter i (pronounced as a separate syllable) to the tense augment. Thus,

ai-, äi-, ei-, ii-, oi-, ui-.
pai-, päi-, pei-, pii-, poi-, pui-.

In English we have no special form for habitual action , but, on the other hand, we use the verb to be with the participle in -ing to express action continuing temporarily.

Fidob bodi, I am eating bread.

Aifidob bodi, I eat bread (am in the habit of eating bread).

Äpenob penedi, I wrote a letter, or I was writing a letter.

Äipenob penedis mödik, I used to write many letters.

The form "to be ----ing" is adopted in Volapük.

Binob penöl, I am writing.

Ai- is also used as a prefix denoting universality with other words.

Aikel, whoever; aikitim, whenever; aikiöp, wherever.

EXERCISE 24.

Lio- ? how- ? to what degree ? as lio-gletik ? how large ?

lio-mödik ? how many ?

Aispatob vädelo in gad obik. Li-aigebol spatini ?

No; spatins paigeboms te fa mans bäledik; li-tikol das binob bäledik ? No nolob; binob yunik, ab aispatob ko spatin. Li-aifidol miti vädelo ? No aifidob omi mälüdelo. Ven äbinobs in Flent, äidlinobs vini, ab nu ven binobs in Melop aidlinobs vati. Du yels lio-mödik äbinols in Flent ? Du yels kil.

Do you drink wine ? I drink wine, but now I am drinking water. In France they drink [one drinks] wine and not water. In Belgium they speak the French and the Dutch languages. What language do they speak in Australia ? They speak-English [one word] wherever many Englishmen are, one speaks English.

THE REFLEXIV.

The reflexiv form is the same as the activ voice with the addition of -ok.

Vatükob, I wash. Vatükobok, I wash myself.

An equivalent expression, sometimes used, is

Vatükob obi.

Vatükol, you wash, Vatükolok,
or, Vatükol oli, you wash yourself.

Vatükomok or vatükom oki, he washes himself. (Vatükom omi would mean he washes him, two different persons.)

In the plural the s usually follows the ok, but may be made to precede it, if that form is thought more euphonious. Vatükoboks, or vatükobsok, we wash ourselvs. Vatükomoks, they wash themselvs. If the object is exprest by a separate pronoun in the plural it is translated "each other." Löfomoks, they love themselvs; Löfoms okis, they love each other. Löfobsok, we love ourselvs; Löfobs obis, we love each other.


EXERCISE 25.

Dälön, to permit. Mutön, must. 
Dalön, to have permission (may).  Mütön, compel. 

Logobok in lok at. Pladolokös in stul et. Aikel löfomok gudikumo ka nileli okik, no binom krit velatik; ab krits velatik löfoms okis. Aivatükobok vämödelo.

I have struck myself with this walking stick. I permit myself to address this letter to you. You will kill yourself. Please seat yourself and make yourself contented.

(Formerly dalön -dälön, mutön -mütön, had converse meanings.)


PREPOSITIONS AND THE KIMIFAL.

In English we make a distinction between in and into.

Into expresses motion from the outside to the interior, while in relates wholly to the interior.

This distinction is exprest in Volapük either by putting the noun into the kimifal or by adding -i to the preposition.

Binob in gad, I am in the garden.
Golob in gadi, or
golob ini gad, I am going into the garden.

In Volapük there are other prepositions subject to the same distinction; when they denote place, where, they govern the kimfal; when they denote direction, whither, they govern the kimifal or take the ending i.

Buk seistom su tab, the book lies on the table.

Seitom buki su tabi, he lays the book on [on to] the table.

This distinction is not always necessary nor always observed, and the list, given in Schleyer's grammar, of prepositions which may govern the kimifal is incorrect, because based on the German prepositions.

The ending i is sometimes added to adverbs of place, giving them the meaning of motion towards.

Binob domo. I am at home.

Kipladi golol? Where are you going [to]?

Golob domoi, I am going home [wards].

Similarly the ending a is used to denote motion from in a few words.

Is, isa, isi. Here, hence, hither.
Us, usa, usi. There, thence, thither.
Kiöp, kiöpa, kiöpi. Where, whence, whither.

It would seem quite as natural and correct to say de is, de us, de kiöp ; al (or ali) is, al us, al kiöp.

To express duration of time the preposition du is used. But sometimes the preposition is omitted (as in English) and then the noun may remain in the kimfal or be put into the kimifal. Thus there are three forms of expression; we prefer to retain the du.

Äblibob in Rom du yels kil,
Äblibob in Rom yels kil, I remained in Rome [during] three years.
Äblibob in Rom yelis kil,

SYNOPSIS OF THE VOLAPÜK INFLECTION.

The changes of form which words may take are all contained in the following table:

1.Plural Ending -s
2.Case Endings --a-e-i
nom.
pos.
dat.
obj.
who?
whose?
to whom?
whom.
3.Gender Prefixes ji- om-
fem.
mas.
Gender Ending -os
neu.
4.
Adjectiv Endings -ik-id
-um -ün
comp.
sup.
5.Adverb Endings -o -na
-umo -üno
6.Person Endings -ob -ol -om -of -os -on
m.
f.
n.
indef.
1
2
-
3
-
7.Tense Arguments
Activ
- ä- e- i- o- u-
Passiv
pa- pä- pe- pi- po- pu-
pres. imp. per. plup. fut. fut per.
does did has had will will have
Freq. Activ
ai- äi- ei- ii- oi- ui-
Passiv
pai- päi- pei- pii- poi- pui-
Gerundiv Arguments
ö- pö-
act. pas.
8.Mood Endings -öl -ön -öd -ös -öz (-öx) -öv -la -li -ok
part
inf.
imp.
pot.
cond.
conj.
interrog.
ref.
9.Preposition Ending ü
10.Interjection Ending ö

THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS.

In English we often use one of the common prepositions in several different meanings, which may not coincide with the meanings of any one Volapük preposition. In Volapük it is intended that each preposition should have only two meanings, the literal and the figurativ.

The following list is intended for reference in case of doubt :

It must be remembered also that there are many words in English which are used sometimes as prepositions, sometimes as adverbs : to run down the hill; to tear down the house.

By, the doer, fa by, beside, nebü by, past, bei by, by means of, dub by, each, a a del, day by day ; a tel, two by two.

At, close to, len at, in a town, in at, o'clock, not translated.

Among Between bevü In English we use between in speaking of two objects, and among of more than two; in Volapük there is no distinction.

Before, speaking of place, bifu speaking of time, büfü.

After, in time, pos ; after, behind, po.

Ago ; where we use this adverb of time, for example "two years ago," the Volapük expression is, "before two years." Similarly, for "two years hence," after two years.

Of, belonging to, translated by the kimafal ; of, concerning (I speak of this subject), ; of, composed of, containing, originating from, coming from (a glass of water, Schleyer of Constance), de.

To, the indirect object of a verb, generally meaning in relation to, translated by the kimefal ; to, denoting progress to a place, al.

From, departure from, de from, on account of, dem or demü.

For, in favor of, in exchange for, plo ; for, instead of, pla ; for, during (for years), du for, on account of dem or demü.

Towards, direction of movement, äl; towards, disposition tovards, kol towards, nearly (towards three o'clock), za.

With, in company with, ko with, as an instrument, me.

But, except, plä, sesumü but, only, te.

Till, until; jü al, jü in, jü su, jü len, etc.

Without, deprived of, nen without, outside of, plö, mofü.

About, surrounding, zi about, concerning, about, approximately, za.


DERIVED PREPOSITIONS.

Prepositions derived from nouns end in ü. (They are generally translated by three English words: a preposition, a noun, another preposition.

Stimü, in honor of. Stim, honor.
Kodü, by reason of. Kod, cause.
Sukü, in consequence of. Suk, following.
Yufü, by aid of. Yuf, aid.
Danü, thanks to. Dan, thank.
Tefü, regarding, concerning. Tef, reference.

Some prepositions are used both with and without the ending ü, as dem or demü.


INTERJECTIONS.

The ending for interjections is ö, Therefore verbs in the imperativ simply drop d, and omit personal ending.

Spidö! Make haste !

Stopö! Halt !

Bafö! Bravo !


THE USE OF CONJUNCTIONS AND ADVERBS.

Since many English words are used both as conjunctions and as adverbs, we group together the principal difficulties of both these parts of speech.

But, as a preposition, has been explained. But, as a conjunction, is ab or sod. Sod is only used after a negativ ; it is not this, but (on the contrary) that. Even in this case ab may be used. "Not only --- but also ---," is expressed by ,,noe --- soi."

And, e before vowels ed is used, though not by all writers. For "both --- and ---" ,,ä --- ä ---" is used.

As, like in the same manner as, äs; as, in the capacity of, as. The verb is generally omitted in the latter case. As, since, for the reason that, bi.

Before, as a preposition, has been explained. Before, as a conjunction, is büfo ; look before you leap; before as an adverb of time, büfumo ; you said that before.

That, as a pronoun, at; atos. That, as a conjunction, has two meanings expressed by dat and das. Dat means, in order that, for the purpose that. Das merely introduces a subordinate sentence as a member of a principal one, as, I said

that he would come. The subordinate sentence "he would come" introduced by that, is the object ; that shows it to be subordinate.

Though, conjunction, or although, do. Though, adverb, nevertheless, deno.

Also, i, or id before vowels.

Nor, ni. "Neither --- nor ---," ,,ni --- ni ---."

If, provided, if. If, whether, va.

Even if, ifi.

Until, till, conjunction, jüs as a preposition, jü al, jü in, etc.

After, conjunction, na preposition, pos adverb, poso.

Or, u, or ud before vowels. "Either --- or ---," ,,uf --- ud ---."

When, conjunction, ven, kü, kelüp when ? kiüp ? kitim ? when, whereupon, e täno.

Where, conjunction, kö, kelöp where ? kiöp ? kiplad ?

Yet, referring to time, nog yet, nevertheless, yed.

There, when unemphatic, is frequently untranslatable, as in the phrases, there is, there are. There is, there are, have quite a different meaning, there being taking in the sense of yonder.

EXERCISE 26.

PENED.


1887 balul l6id.

O söl lestimlik! Egetob penedi olik de batul kilsebalid äyela e gälobok levemo das binol in saun gudik e das volapük mekom mostepis so gletik lomü ols. Tefü buks, kelis vilol das olemob, ogolob odelo ini glezif, ed osükob omis. Stadobs valiks gudiko e glidobs oli e famüli olik.

Dear Sir: I request that you will mail me your paper during one year, addressing it as is written below. I send [mail] you one dollar in payment, and remain

Your friend.

In volapük pladon ladyeki pos subsat, e kimifali pos velib.

In English one places the adjectiv before the noun. In German the accusativ is placed sometimes before the verb.


ORDER OF WORDS.

The exercises have given an idea of the usual order in which the words in a sentence are placed. Except that the adjectiv follows, instead of preceding the word which it qualifies, this order is about the same as in English.

The general principle is that the word which limits or describes follows that which is limited or described, or, to use Prof. Kerckhoffs' expression, the determinant follows the determined.

The predicate or verb follows the subject or kimfal.

The object or kimifal follows the verb, and the kimefal, being a more remote object, is placed still later.

The kimafal or possessiv follows the thing possessed. In English the possessor comes first if it is exprest by the possessiv case, but if exprest by of it comes after.

The adverb follows the verb which it modifies, but if it modifies an adjectiv then the adverb precedes the adjectiv. This is an apparent exception to the general rule of position; the adverb may, however, be considered as forming a compound word with the adjectiv ; the rule being, in compound words, the opposit to the rule of position, viz., that the determinant precedes the determined.

The negativ adverb no precedes the word which it denies, on the same principle.

Although the regular order of words in a sentence is that just explained, yet it is not rigorously fixed. For the sake of emphasis or special effect words may be transposed, provided the sense be not obscured. The terminations often enable such transposition to take place without confusion.

Thus, "the man loves the woman," may be expressed in several ways :

1. Man löfom vomi.

2. Vomi löfom man.

3. Löfom man vomi.

4. Vomi man löfom.

5. Man vomi löfom.

We give these forms because they may occasionally be met with in reading; we recommend, however, that the regular form, No. 1, be habitually used.

Form No. 5, where the kimifal precedes the verb, is one which German writers of Volapük are fond of using in subordinate sentences, following the order of their own language. For example, they will say

,,If man vomi löfom,"

although without the ,,if" they would follow the natural order ,,man löfom vomi." This is a German idiom and has nothing to recommend it in Volapük.

lf we examin the English sentence "the man loves the woman" we see that no transposition can take place without destroying the sense, because we can only distinguish the subiect from the object by position. If we had a different ending for the objectiv, like the kimifal, then we might transpose.

EXERCISE 27.

In this reading exercise the left-hand column contains a translation from the German, in which the words are, to a great extent, arranged in the German order, --- too much so, I think. The verb is placed at the end of the sentence or clause without any apparent reason for this position, except that in the German original it is at the end. In the right-hand column the same words are re-arranged with correction of some other Germanisms.

INVERTED ORDER. NATURAL ORDER.
Glut ledik tegom sili
kel jünu yulibik ebinom.
Yono flamom filakolüm,
tegöpi mena kösumöl,
kel omi ed omikis esävom.
Noli binoms valüds atoz?*
Si, atoz binoms ,,valüds
fata ko kels nonik fed
tenalik binos al fedön."
Ga ekusi ! Lelit, kel
domi et ävilom nosön,
disislifom äl tali, nen
dämön. Näm jekik,
vali duzuköl, menaladi
fulöl ko tlep e jek, golom
büdo menas du voli,
tiki polöl da oti ko
vif nesuemik.
Glut ledik tegom sili
kel ebinom jünu yulibik.
Filakolüm flamom yono,
kösumöl tegöpi mena
kel esävom omi ed omikis.
No-li ats binoms valüds ?
Si, ats binoms ,,valüds
fata ko kels nonik fed
tenalik binom pöfedöl."
Ga, ekusi ! Lelit, kel
ävilom nosön domi et,
disislifom äl täli nen
dämön. Näm jekik,
duzuköl vali, fulöl mena-
ladi ko tlep e jek, golom
büdü mens da vol.
polöl tiki da ot ko
vif nesuemik.

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.

In English there are certain peculiarities of expression, which we do not notice until our attention is called to them by the study of other languages. It is therefore dangerous to translate literally into Volapük unless we first reflect upon the English phrase and are sure that it means literally and exactly what it says. It is safest, in regard to Volapük, as well as other languages, to frame sentences on the model of those which have been composed by authors of known correctness.


* In the earlier editions of the grammar oz was given as a permissible plural of os.


Correspondents of different nationalities may be of mutual assistance in pointing out phrases which are difficult to understand, and requesting a repetition of the idea in different words. This alteration will itself be a valuable exercise. The various Volapük periodicals give from time to time notices of societies in various cities and towns of Europe. By writing to the president of one of these societies a correspondent may be secured, probably interested in the same pursuits as the applicant.

A few cautions as to idiomatic expressions are given below :

1. The distinction between the verbs "have, be, do," etc., when used as principal verbs and as auxiliaries, must be carefully watched.

2. In such phrases as "there is, there are," there, as already stated, is untranslatable. Yet it has a value; it shows that the verb to be has its meaning to exist, and that it is not a mere copula. For example :

There is a Volapük society in Constance ;

The Volapük Society in Constance is famous.

Is in the latter sentence is a copula, attributing the quality famous to the Society ; in the former sentence the affirmation is that such a society exists. It is allowed by usage in Volapük to mark this distinction by placing the verb before the subject, as,

1. Binom Volapükaklub in Konstanz, or

Volapükaklub sibinom in Konstanz.

2. Volapükaklub in Konstanz binom famik.

3. Besides the articles a, an, the, we use the words some and any as a kind of partitiv articles, and these are also omitted in Volapük, as they add nothing to the sense.

Have you any money ? } Li-labol moni ?
or, have you

I have some money, } Labob moni.
or I have money.

In the negativ we use no or not any.

No labob moni,
I have no money, { or
Labob moni nonik.

DERIVATION OF WORDS.

The simplest ideas are represented by radicals of one syllable. There are also radicals of two syllables, expressing somewhat more complex ideas.

The radicals have been taken principally from the following languages: English, Latin, German and French. More material has been taken from the English than from any other language. The English words are, however, much modified in adapting them to Volapük.

1. The spelling is changed, the pronunciation being preserved or nearly so.

Jip, sheep. Löf, love.
Kipön, to keep. Giv, give.
Kömön, to come. Sin, sin.
Gudik, good.

2. Consonants are dropt or changed when there would be any difficulty of pronunciation.

Vol, world. Pükön, to speak.
Tat, state. Ted, trade.
Täv, travel. Tif, (thief) stealing.

3. The letter r is specially avoided; l being frequently substituted.

Glen, grain. Glet, great.
Bil, beer. Telegaf, telegraph.
Blod, brother. Flen, friend.

4. As radicals seldom hegin or end in a vowel the consonants n or l are added, or the letters are transposed.

Pel, pay. Lep, ape.
Love-, over-. Nidian, Indian.
Nelijik, English. Nulik, new.

From the radicals other words are formed by compounding, by prefixing and by suffixing.

COMPOUND WORDS.

In forming compound words the rule of word placing is exactly reversed, and the determinant precedes the determined.

A compound noun is formed by inserting the vowel a between the determining word and the principal word.

Vol-a-pük, world-language.

Potamon, postage (post-money).

Pükatidel, language teacher.

Flentapük, language of France, French language.

Yagadog, hunting dog, hound.

Nulayel, new-year.

The first part of the compound may be considered as the kimafal, and usually the meaning of the compound may be expressed by placing it after the principal word either in the kimafal or in the adjectiv form; pük vola, mon potik, tidel pükas, pük flentik, dog yagik, yel nulik. But the meaning of the compound word is more specialized. Pük vola may mean a language of the world, any language of the world, while volapük means a language understood through the whole world.

In a few compounds instead of a the syllables as, i and o, are used as connectivs, tho' there seems to be no settled rule.

Vödasbuk, dictionary.

Pölivegam, wandering astray.

Sometimes three nouns are compounded together, but care must be taken not to produce too long words.

Volapükatidel, universal-language-teacher.


PREFIXES.

Words formed by prefixing syllables are in reality a kind of compounds in which the first part is intimately blended with the second. For example, in glezif, a city, composed of

prefix gle- + noun zif,
great town;

zif is the principal word and gle- the determinant.

Gle- is a contraction of the adjectiv gletik or of its radical glet, greatness. Many other prefixes are similarly formed from nouns and adjectivs.

Sma-, from smalik, small; smabed, nest (little bed).

Blä-, from blägik, black; Bläfot, the Black Forest.

Vie-, from vietik, while; viebod, white bread.

Ba-, from bal, one; bafom, uniformity.

Mö-, from mödik, many, much; möpükik, polyglot; möflanik, many-sided.

Si-, from sil, heaven; prefix of constellations or zodiacal signs: Sijip, Aries ; Sijutel, Sagittarius; sifits, Pisces.

Nolü-, Sulü-, Lefü-, Vesü-, from Nolüd, Sulüd, Lefüd, Vesüd, North, South, East, West; Nolümelop, North America; Vesünidän, West Indies.

., from bapik, low, and vä-, from valik, all, with a change of vowel.

Other prefixes are simple prepositions, and most of them can be so used.

Bevü, between, inter- ; bevünetik, international.

Bif, before (in place), contracted, to bi-, pre- bisiedön, to preside.

De, from; de-, ab-, off-, away; defal, falling off; defiledön, to burn off ; deyulön, to abjure.

Ko-, ke; with; com-, con-, syn- ; koköm, coming together; kelied, compassion; kevobel, colaborer; kezenodön, to concentrate.

Len-, towards, ad- ; lenpük, address; lensumön, to assume, take to one's-self.

Love-, over, super-; lovedugön, to lead over; lovelogön, to overlook; lovepenäd, superscription, something written over; lovepolam, translation.

There are also prefix-syllables which never occur separately and are not contractions of other words. The following are the most important of these inseparable prefixes :

Ne-, negativ, or contrary; un-, in-, dis-, non-, -less; neflen, enemy (unfriend); nelab, want (opposit of lab, possession); det, right [hand]; nedet, left ; nedanik, ungrateful; nebin, non-existence.

Le- intensiv ; very, highly, chief, arch- ; legudik, very good ; legletik, very great; lebijop, archbishop ; lezif, large city (glezif is metropolis). Gle- indicates the highest or most important of its kind.

Lu-, small, insignificant, bad or contemptible. This prefix is frequently used where in English we use different words. Beg, a request, lubegel, a beggar, mendicant ; lufat, a step-father; lak, a lake, lulak, a pond; sanel, a physician, lusanel, a quack; sölel, a ruler, lusölel, a tyrant ; vomik, feminin, luvomik, effeminate.

(See suflix -il for a list of augmentativs and diminutivs.)

Ge-, back, re- ; gepük, reply ; gekipön, to keep back.

Be- is said to strengthen the meaning of the radical; it frequently means to cause or confer the thing expressed by the radical.

Da- denotes the completion or an action or the attainment of an object.


SUFFIXES.

Some suffixes are formed by cutting off the beginnings of nouns.

From mul, month, -ul as a termination for the names or months. There are two sets of names for the months: one derived from the numerals, the other from the Roman names, ---

January, balul or yanul. | July velul or yulul.
February, telul or febul. | August, jölul or gustul.
March, kilul or mäzul. | September, zülul or setul.
April, folul or apul. | October, balsul or otul.
May, lulul or mayul. | November, babul or novul.
June, mälul or yunul. | December, batul or dekul.

From län, country, -än as a termination for names of countries or states.

Cinän, China. Bayän, Bavaria. Lusän, Russia.

From düp, hour, -üp as a termination for a portion of time.

Tidüp, a lesson (teaching time).

Kiüp ? when? at what time ?

Patüp, the present tense.

Yelüp, the course of a year.

From top, place,

(1) -op, for the divisions of the earth.

Yulop, Europe. Silop, Asia.
Fikop, Africa. Melop, America.
Talop, Australia.

(2) -öp, for a place.

Kiöp ? where?

Malädöp, a hospital.

The following endings have no meaning, exccpt in composition:

-el, -er ; one who does, a person.

Mekel, a maker; from mekön, to make.

Datuvel, discoverer, from datuv, discovering.

Tidel, teacher.

This ending occurs very frequently. It denotes also an inhabitant or a country.

Melopel, an American. Nelijel, Englishman.
Deutel, a German. Flentel, Frenchman.

-al and -an also refer to persons. Al implies dignity or superiority.

-ef is a collection or persons; em, of things.

-en is an establishment for a trade (-ery).

-af, names or animals ; -it, of birds; -in, of substances.

-ip, diseases; -öm, apparatus; -av, sciences.

-äl, -am, -öf, abstract nouns ; äl, character; -am, action; -öf, quality, or state.

-il, diminutiv; -et, -kin, -ling; domil, a little house; ganil, gosling.

The following illustration shows the various gradations of diminutiv and augmentativ words in Volapük :

luzifil, wretched little town,
smazifil, little hamlet,
zifil, little town,
luzif, wretched town,
smazif, village,
zif, town,
lulezif, big ugly city,
lezif, city,
glezif, important city,
luglezif, miserable great city,
leglezif, metropolis.

The endings -ik, -el, -am, are the most common, and almost every radical may assume them. In our vocabulary

we frequently give the radical only or one of these derivativs, leaving the others to be inferred.

From any radical denoting a quality may be formed, by adding ik, an adjectiv attributing that quality, as gud, goodness, gudik, good; jap, sharpness, japik, sharp. Thus dropping ness is equivalent to adding ik, or vice versa. In this case we usually give the adjectiv only, leaving the student to drop the ik and add the ness or we give the noun only, leaving him to drop the ness and add the ik.

Every root has, or may have, an adjectiv form in ik, but there is not always a corresponding English adjectiv. Many adjectivs are entirely lacking in English. We have no such word, for example, as "to-daily," and we use the possessiv

"to-day's newspaper;" but in Volapük, ,,gased adelik." We have "golden" derived from "gold," but have no adjectiv

derived from "iron." But in Volapük ,,golüdik, lelik, silefik," are regularly formed from ,,golüd, lel, silef," and in translating from English we must be careful, to distinguish: in phrases like "silver watch," treating "silver " as an adjectiv ; ,,glok silefik." Whole phrases are also rendered by an adjectiv in ik or an adverb in iko the adjectiv being used if the phrase qualifies a noun, the adverb, if it qualifies a verb.

Many words are used both as nouns and as verbs in Volapük and in English. Thus we speak of a name and to name, nem and nemön a reward and to reward, mesed and mesedön. In this case we add the syllable -ön as all indication that the same words are used as nouns and as verbs. But if -ön or -ik be enclosed in parenthesis we mean that a slight but obvious change is made in passing from one English part of speech to another.

Any verb may form a noun in am, which expresses the action of the verb, like our words in -tion for example,

plepalön, to prepare, plepalam, preparation.

Almost any verb may form a noun in el, which expresses the doer of the action, as plepalel, a preparer; studön, to

study, studel, a student.


EXAMPLE OF DERIVATION.

(From Kerckhoff’s Complete Course.)

Pük, language, speech ; pükik, linguistic, pertaining to language ; pükatidel, language teacher ; pükapök, defect of speech ; pükön, to speak ; pükönabid, pükönamod, manner of speech ; motapük, mother tongue ; volapük, universal language.

Pükat, oration ; pükatil, little speech ; [pükatel, orator ; ] telapükat, dialogue.

Pükav, philology ; pükavik, philological.

Püked, saying ; pükedik, sententious ; pükedavöd, proverb ; pükedavödik, proverbial ; valapüked, motto.

Pükel, orator, speaker ; pükelik, oratorical ; möpükel, polyglot, speaker of many languages.

Püköf, eloquence ; püköfik, eloquent ; püköfav, rhetoric ; püköfavik, rhetorical.

Pükot, talk ; pükotik, talkativ ; okopükot, soliloquy.

Bepük, discussion ; bepükön, to discuss.

Bipük, preface.

Gepük, answer ; gepükön, to answer.

Lepük, assertion, affirmation ; lepükön, to assert, to affirm.

Lenpük, address ; lenpükön, to address.

Libapük, acquittal ; libapükön, to acquit ("speak free").

Lupük, chatter ; lupükön, to chatter ; lupükem, gossip ; lupükot, gossip (that which is said) ; lupüklam, stammering ; lupüklön, to stammer.

Mipük, mis-speaking. slip of the tongue ; mipükön, to mis-speak.

Nepük, silence ; nepükik, silent ; nepükön, to keep still.

Sepük, pronunciation ; sepükik, pronounceable ; sepükad, pronouncement (rendering of decision) ; sepükam, act of pronouncing ; sepükön, to pronounce.

Tapük, contradiction ; tapükik, contradictory ; tapükön, to contradict.


EXERCISE 28.

VOTAMS FA LASAM VALEMIK TELID.

In jölul yela 1887 lasam valemik volapükelas äzitom in München, zif Deuta. Lasam at ämekom votamis anik in noms volapüka, e zesüdos sevön votamis at, dat kanon lilädön bukis pepüböl büf tim lasama. Buk obsik pepenom segun noms nulik pestaböls fa lasam.

Ab in penäds vönik onoeton :

1. Das äbinoms foms tel tonaba h, c e h, müedik e düfik ; nu labobs fomi te bal, h.

2. Das äbinom fom plütik, ,,ons," pla ,,ol," kel fom (ons) no sibinom nu.

3. Das nems lönik päpenoms segun ton, fonetigo ; nu paipenoms segun lotogaf länas keles lönoms.

4. Das vökäds ä, ö, ü älaboms fomis patik, nen pünils.

5. Das ji- as bisilab älabom fetanamali (-).

6. Das ,ji-' ämalom sotimo jimateli dunela e no jiduneli it ; e das ,of,' pla ,ji,' ämalom jiduneli. a.s., ji-tidel, vöno, jimatel tidela ; of-tidel, vom kel tidof, jitidel.  


PARABLE ; translated by Schleyer.

ABRAHAM E BÄLEDAN.

Abraham äsiedom vöno len yan teneda oma, valadöl (segun kösöm omik) foginelis al lotadön omis. Ädalogom bäledani blegöl oki su staf e kömöl al omi. Bäled e töbs ifenoms omi.

Abraham älasumom omi fleno ; äbegom omi siadönok, ävatükom futis oma, ed äblinom flukis e vati flifik. Ab logöl das bäledan äfidom ed ädlinom nes sagön pleki, äsäkom omi kikod no äleplekom Godi süla. Bäledan ägepükom das äleplekom te Fili e das no äsevom godi votik.

Abraham äzunom sovemo demü gesag at das äjokom bäledani mofü tened.

Ven at igolom, God ävokom Abrahami ed äsäkom omi kiöp foginel äbinom. Ägesagom: ,,ejokob omi mofü tened, bi no leplekom oli." God äsagom täno ome: ,,esufob omi du yels tum do änestimom obi ; ed ol no-li äkanol suföm omi du neit bal ven no ätupom oli?"

Na Abraham ililom vödis at, ägevokom bäledani, älinkipom omi lotado ed ägivom ome tidamis sapik.

Dunolöd id also e pomesedol fa God Abrahama.

 

MODEL OF TRANSLATION.

AND GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS.

I give an analysis of the above parable, taking it sentence by sentence, and showing how a person, ignorant of the words, would go to work and ascertain the meaning by the aid of the vocabulary.

Persons familiar with other languages, and hence accustomed to translation, may obtain a general idea of the structure of Volapük by following this analysis even before they have at all studied the grammar.

Beginning with the first sentence, we look for the verb. When we come to äsiedom, we know it to be a verb because it has a tense-vowel ä as a prefix (of the series a, ä. e, i, o, u), and a person-ending om (of the series -ob, -ol, -om, -of, -os, -on). As om means he, we know that the verb is in the third person singular ; as ä means "imperfect tense" we know that "he" did something. What he did is to be found out by removing the prefix and the ending which leaves the root sied. Looking in the vocabulary we find that sied, as a noun, means a seat, and the verb siedön, to sit. Therefore äsiedom must express of someone, "he sat." --- Who sat ? As ,,Abraham" precedes the verb and is in the kimfal, it answers the question, ,,Kim äsiedom?" "Who sat ?" Äsiedom alone would have meant "he sat," but we omit the "he" in English when the subject is expressed ; therefore,

Abraham äsiedom == Abraham sat.

When the kimfal and the verb are known, the rest of the sentence must fall into place to modify these. Vöno is, judging by the ending o, an adverb, and as it follows äsiedom it probably is used to modify that verb. Looking in the vocabulary we find it means, "once, formerly." "Once," that is, not as distinguished from "twice," but "once upon a time. " We now, have, in the English order,

Abraham äsiedom vöno == Abraham once sat.

As len does not show by its form what part of speech it is we must look it up and we find it to be a preposition meaning "at." The word following it, yan, we find to be a noun ; as it is in the kimfal (not ending in a vowel) and follows the preposition, it is evident that len yan meant either "at a door" or "at the door ; " which or these it will be cannot yet be determined. .

Immediately after yan is a word teneda. From its ending in a we know that it is in the kimafal. and answers the question "whose ?" "whose door ?" As tened means tent, ,,yan teneda" must mean "tent's door," or rather "door of tent," for we seldom use 's in English except in speaking of living things.

Len yan teneda == at door of tent.

In English we should conventionally expand this into one or the following forms :

But these articles do not add anything whatever to the meaning. If an artist were to paint four pictures of Abraham,

  1. sitting at the door of the tent,
  2. sitting at the door of a tent,
  3. sitting at a door of the tent,
  4. sitting at a door of a tent,

all four views would be alike, and each would be precisely the same as if he had received the briefer description, "at door of tent, " or "at tent door."

,,Oma" is another kimafal, and as it immediately follows teneda it must answer the question "whose tent ?" Its root, om, we recognise as meaning he ; therefore oma means "his" and refers to teneda. So that we now have the full meaning of the first clause: "Abraham once sat at the door of his tent."

The next word valadöl must be a participle as it ends in -öl, which is like our "-ing." Valad we find in the vocabulary to mean awaiting ; valadön, to wait for, to await, to attend. Therefore valadöl must mean either "waiting for," "awaiting," or "attending."

Now he who awaits or attends must await something or some one ; that is, valadön is the kind or verb which is called transitiv ; it may have an object. This object must be in the kimifal ; that is, must end in i or is. Looking further along we find such a word, foginelis. The s tells us it is plural. The i that it is in the objectiv or kimifal. This leaves us foginel. The ending el refers to a person, and often corresponds to er in English. We find fogin to mean "a foreign country," for which there is no one word in English. Foginel means a foreigner, stranger, one from a distant country.

The words ,,valadöl foginelis" mean "awaiting strangers." The three words segun kösöm omik, as they come just after valadöl, must modify or explain its meaning. Segun is found to be a preposition meaning "according to," and kösöm, a noun in the kimfal, "custom," ,,segun kösöm" must be "according to custom." The ending -ik tells us that omik is an adjectiv ; as adjectivs always follow the words they qualify it must describe kösöm. We know that ,,om" is "he," and that ,,-ik" is "pertaining to ; " ,,omik" is "his." This is another form, equivalent to oma ; when the possessor is one of the pronouns ob, ol, om, of, os, on, it may be put in either the adjectiv form or the kimafal ; may end either in ik or in a.

Segun kösöm omik == according to his custom

Valadöl, segun kösöm omik, foginelis == awaiting strangers, according to his custom.

We cannot in English place the phrase "according to his custom," where it naturally belongs. The reason for this is that we have no separate form for the objectiv, and therefore feel a necessity for placing it as close as possible to the verb so that it may be felt as the object. "Awaiting, according to his custom, strangers," would sound awkward.

Al lotadön omis. The ending -ön indicates the infinitiv, and we have seen that al before the infinitiv gives it the meaning "in order to ; " altho' "in order" need not be expressed. If we look up lotad we find that it means hospitality ; but we have in English no verb "to hospitate." We are obliged to use some such phrase as "to give hospitality to," "to receive hospitably." Omis is the same word ,,om" which we have already met several times. This time it is in the kimifal, plural, like foginelis, which, in fact, it replaces.

Al lotadön omis == to offer them hospitality.

This completes the first sentence.

We begin the second by searching as before for a verb, which we may expect to find marked by its tense-vowel at the beginning and its person-ending. We have not far to seek, as ädalogom has the marks. We see at once that (as in äsiedom) the framework is he did something. Dalogön is to perceive, hence ädalogom is he perceived. The subject not being expressed the he must stand in its stead.

Dalog-ön is not a simple word. Da is a prefix, and log is the real root. Log, as a noun. means eye ; log-ön, the verb, is to see. Da, as a prefix, denotes the completion of an action or the attainment of the object sought.

ädalogom, being a transitiv verb, should have an object, in the kimifal, of course. We readily find this object in the next word bäledani. This we find to mean an "old-man ," but even if bäledan were omitted from the vocabulary we could discover its meaning from the root bäled, age, and the ending an (an echo of man), which is applied to persons.

ädalogom bäledani == he perceived an old man.

Blegöl is recognised as a participle qualifying bäledani, which it follows. Blegön is found to mean to bend. Oki is the reflexiv pronoun ok, -self in the kimifal. Therefore blegöl oki is bending himself. It might be expressed in one word, blegölok. Su staf is readily found to mean on a staff. Taking the phrase together we may translate it "leaning on a staff." E, and. Kömöl is another participle, from kömön, to come. Al omi, to him; omi is in the kimifal because al denotes motion toward him. This is not indispensable, for al om would express the same idea. Al, of itself, conveys the idea of direction; so that there is not the same useful distinction as between in and into.

In the next sentence, seeking first the verb, we recognise it in ifenoms by the personal ending oms, they and the tense prefix i. I we find in the series a, ä, e, i, o, u (present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, future, future perfect); its English equivalent is "had;" oms is third person, plural, they; therefore we have only to look for the meaning of fen to know what "they had" done. Fen being to weary, ifenoms must be they had wearied. We now look back for the subject which must be plural. Töbs has the plural-sign and is in the kimfal.

Töbs ifenoms == troubles had wearied.

But we cannot positivly decide upon this until we examin the words which precede töbs, for according to the rules of position the subject must be at the beginning of the sentence. Much depends upon the particle e, for if this is a preposition, töbs, tho' in the kimfal, cannot be the subject. E proves, however, to be the conjunction and, and bäled, the noun, age. Bäled e töbs, age and troubles, form a compound subject to ifenoms. The object omi is at once recognised by its ending.

Bäled e töbs ifenoms omi. == age and troubles had wearied him.

The ending oms is masculine, but is used here where in English we should expect the neuter. It, as well as he, is represented by om.

The next sentence presents nothing of difficulty; subject, verb (in the third person, singular, imperfect), object, adverb.

Fleno in a friendly manner, requires four words in English because we do not say friendli-ly. Fleniko would have about the same meaning; the adverb may be formed from the adjectiv or directly from the noun.

Abraham älasumom omi fleno. == Abraham received him in friendly manner.

äbegom omi is familiar. Siadönok: ok is the reflexiv ending, meaning myself, yourself, himself, etc., as the case may be; -ön is the infinitiv-ending already mentioned; siadön is to seat. Siedön, to sit, is intransitiv; siadön, to seat, is transitiv. Siadönok is here translated to seat himself, on account of omi.

äbegom omi siadönok == requested him to seat himself.

And the next clause presents nothing new :

ävatükom futis oma = washed his feet.

Ed is the same as e, used before a vowel. If e were used here there would be no misunderstanding; and some writers refuse to change e into ed on the ground that there should be no variation of form where there is no difference in sense, Flifik is an adjectiv since it ends in ik; it qualifies vati, for it immediately follows that word. In English we say "fresh water," in Volapük the order is "water fresh."

Ed äblinom flukis e vati flifik == and brought fruits and fresh water.

The first verbal form which we find in next sentence is logöl, which we already know to mean "seeing." Das we find to be the conjunction that, therefore the following words, ,,bäledan," etc., must be a subordinate sentence, which we may take up first and translate as if it were standing alone.

Bäledan äfidom ed ädlinom nes sagön pleki.

Proceeding in the usual manner to look for the verb, we find äfidom; but we also find the verb ädlinom and the conjunction e or ed connecting them. E (or ed) like and in English, connects two similar words or phrases as two subjects (bäled e töbs for example), two predicates, as in this instance, two objects (for example flukis e vati flifik), two adverbs, two subordinate sentences. Looking for the roots, fid and dlin, we find that äfidom ed ädlinom means, by itself, he ate and drank. The subject bäledan is a word with which we are familiar. On its former occurrence we translated it "an old man," but now, as he has been previously mentioned, we use the article "the" -- "the old man ate and drank."

The following clause ,,nes sagön pleki," we may presume to modify the verbs as it follows them. We confirm this by finding that nes is a preposition, meaning , "without." Nen also means without, but nes is used before infinitivs. Nen, however, would be perfectly understood, and may be used without confusion. After a preposition we use in English the form in -ing; nes sagön -- without saying. The ending -i shows that pleki is the object of the verb sagön. Nes sagön pleki == without saying a prayer.  

Ab logöl das bäledan äfidom ed ädlinom nes sagön pleki --  ==   But seeing that the old man ate and drank without saying a prayer -- 

This participial clause is placed at the beginning of the sentence because it qualifies the subject, which is the -om in äsäkom, he asked. Ome is another form of om; the kimefal or indirect object. In English the person of whom anything is asked is put in the objectiv, but in Volapük the thing asked is considered as the direct object; "he asked [to] him." This is indicated in the vocabulary, by [bosi eke]; säkön [bosi eke], to ask any one anything ; that is, the thing asked is in the kimifal, and the person asked in the kimefal.

The words following this constitute the question which was asked, in the exact words Abraham would use, except that Abraham would have changed one letter.

Kikod no äleplekol Godi süla ?

äsäkom ome, kikod no äleplekom Godi süla.

Kikod is found to be an interrogativ adverb, "why ?" derived from kod, cause; -- "what cause ?" In the same way are formed, kiplad ? "what place ?" for where ? and kitim ? "what time ?" for when ? This being the connecting word, we next take up the sentence in the usual order, beginning with the verb äleplekom, which is the same form as äsiedom and several other verbs given. Leplekön is to worship, being derived from plekön, to pray, with the intensiv prefix le. No is the negativ particle not; it is so closely connected with the verb which it modifies, or rather reverses, that it is placed before like a prefix rather than after as a modifier. No äleplekom, he did not worship. What is the object in this sentence ? Godi, because it ends in i. No äleplekom Godi == he did not worship God. What is süla ? A noun in the kimafal or "whose" case, answering the question whose ? of whom ? or of what ? God of what ? God of heaven. Here we insert in English a "the" before "God," though it would seem more reasonable to say "God of the heaven" than "the God of heaven."

äsäkom ome, kikod no äleplekom Godi süla. == He asked him why he did not worship the God of heaven.

In the next sentence, it is at once seen that Bäledan is the subject and ägepükom the verb ; that the old man did something denoted by gepük, which is found to mean reply. The old man replied -- what ? There are two subordinate sentences, each beginning with das, that; these two sentences are connected by e, and. We may analyse them separately.

1. äleplekom te Fili.

What is the verb ? äleplekom, he worshiped. What is its subject ? He, expressed by om in the termination. What is its object ? Fili because it ends in i. äleplekom Fili == he worshiped Fire. Te, like all words of two letters, is a particle of some kind. It is found to be the adverb only. It precedes the word to which it refers.

äleplekom te Fili == he worshiped only Fire (Fire alone).

2. No äsevom godi votik.

What is the verb ? äsevom, he did -- something; he knew ; no äsevom, he did not know. Votik must be an adjectiv from its ending; other, another.

No äsevom godi votik == he did know another god ; or, he knew no other god.

The two replies of the old man can now be translated.

We have now had all the cases exemplified in the forms of om.

Om, he ; oma, his (or him); ome, to him; omi, him ; and we can complete the plural :

Oms, they; omas, their (of them); omes, to them ; omis, them.

The next sentence will now be easily understood upon ascertaining the meanings of the separate words.

The phrase ,,Ven at igolom," although it comes first, really modifies ävokom. The reason for placing it out of the usual order is to place it in the order of time, as will be seen. Ven is a conjunction, "when." What is the verb ? Igolom, and it is in the pluperfect tense, third person, singular, masculin ; "he had ----," is the English formula. Golön, to go ; therefore igolom = he had gone. What is the subject ? At means this, and refers to bäledan, understood. In English it is not customary to use this without its noun (when masculin), hence we say "the latter."

Ven at igolom == when the latter had gone or was gone.

Observe that "was gone" is not a passiv, altho' it looks like one. The auxilliary "am" does not always denote the passiv voice, and the meaning must be followed, not the sound.

,,God ävokom Abrahami" will be understood upon finding the meaning of vokön, to call; ed äsäkom ome, this is all familiar. Kiöp is the connecting word, an interrogativ adverb, where ?

ägesagom, he answered ; this is a synonym of ägepükom. Both are formed by prefixing the syllable ge-, which means back, re-; to re-say , to re-speak. The exact words of Abraham's reply are given, in quotation marks. What is the verb ? ejokob; it is in the perfect tense and first person, singular; "I have" done something. "I have thrust." What is the subject ? Ob, I; in the termination or the verb. What is the object ? Omi, him; ending in i. Mofü is a preposition; any word ending in ü is a preposition. Mofü tened, outside-of the-tent. Bi, because, is a conjunction introducing the subordinate sentence ,,no leplekom oli," which should now be analysed. What is its verb ? Leplekom, present tense, third person, singular, masculin; tells what he does or with no what he does not. No leplekom, he does not worship. What is the object? Oli (ob-ol-om-of-os-on), thee.  

ägesagom: ,,ejokob omi mofü tened, bi no leplekom oli."  ==  He answered: "I have thrust him outside the tent because he does not worship thee."

God äsagom täno ome, God said then to him; or, God then said to him. Esufob omi du yels tum.

What is the verb ? Esufob, perfect tense, first person, singular; tells what I have done. --- I have endured. What is the object ? Omi, him. Du, is a preposition, during. Yels is the plural of yel, a year. The numeral tum is placed after its noun.

Esufob omi du yels tum == I have endured him for a hundred years.

Do is a conjunction, connecting the clause änestimom obi with the main sentence, as above.

Do änestimom obi == Though he contemned me.

In the clause beginning with ,,ed ol" the particle -li, as well as the interrogation point, shows that a question is asked. First translate the clause as if an assertion, disregarding -li, then change it to a question.

What is the verb ? äkanol, imperfect, second person, singular. Thou couldst. What is the subject ? Ol, expressed separately as well as in the termination, making it more emphatic.

Ed ol no-li äkanol sufön omi and couldst not thou endure him, 
du neit bal during one night, 
ven no ätupom oli ?  when he did not trouble thee ? 

In the next sentence, Na is the conjunction, and the clause introduced by it is placed, at the first of the sentence for the same reason as the clause, Ven at igolom.--- Vödis at, these words; at is here an adjectiv pronoun.--- There are, in this sentence not two, but three, clauses connected by ed; they begin with the verbs ägevokom, älinkipom and ägivom. The last of these clauses ,,ägivom ome tidamis sapik" has two objects : tidamis, the direct object or kimifal, and ome, the indirect object or kimefal. The order would be more strictly logical and regular if ome were placed last. This, however, creates no difficulty in understanding.

Dunolöd id also.

What is the verb ? Dunolöd. It is imperativ because it ends in öd; it is second person, singular, shown by ol; the absence of prefix shows it to be present tense. The root dun means to do; therefore its translation is, do thou ! or simply, do ! The other words are merely adverbs.

Dunolöd id also ! == do thou also thus !

Pomesedol fa God Abrahama.

The verb is pomesedol. P shows it to be passiv ; o shows it to be future; po == shall be -----ed; ol, shows it to be second person, singular, thou shalt be -----ed. Mesed, is reward; pomesedol, thou shalt be rewarded.


These sentences have introduced all the cases, both numbers. all the persons. all the tenses, except the future-perfect, both voices, and the reflexiv, interrogativ, imperativ, infinitiv, and participial forms. Almost all the rules of inflexion and construction have been exemplified.

The following, then, is an outline of the usual course to be followed in translating a sentence :

l. What is the VERB, or predicate ? It is recognised by its having a person-ending, which will be one of the syllables ob, ol, om, of, os, on. If there be more than one verb found disregard all subordinate clauses, connected by conjunctions, and seek the principal verb.

2. What is the tense ? What is the person, the number, the gender ? These are determined by the syllables at the beginning and end, and from them may be formed a skeleton or framework, which is completed by finding and inserting the meaning of the radical.

3. What is the SUBJECT ? Perhaps it is implied in the person-ending and not otherwise expressed. If it be expressed it must be in the kimfal. Then read these two words together as the foundation of the sentence : subject, verb,

4. Is there an OBJECT ? If so it must be in the kimifal; and you now have : kimfal, verb, kimifal.

5. Is there a more remote or INDIRECT OBJECT ? If so it is in the kimefal, and completes the four principal parts :

Kimfal......VERB......kimifal......kimefal......

Each of these four principal words may be followed by determinants, words of phrases limiting or modifying its meaning, and these are last taken up and translated.


SPODAM.


l.

NEW YORK, 187, batul 18id. Söle Schleyer in Konstanz:

O söl löfik !

Vipöl vedön bonedel Volapükableda Zenodik, sedob ole in pened at tlati plo maks tel e fenigs mäls, suämi boneda yelsik, e begob das opotol bledi al ladet pepenöl diso.

Dünan olik divodikün,

John Smith,

365 Fifth Avenue.


2.

CHICAGO, 1887, mälul 20id. Söles Müller und Schultze in Berlin :

O söls pelestimöl !

Pened at polovegivom oles fa flen obsik e bonedel söl Adolphus Snodgrass kel ovisitom Yulop kodü saun e keli kanobs komedön as man pekulivik e digik lotada keli klödobs das olofols ome.

Danöl biseo plo flenöf, blibobs,

Dünans olsik divodikün,

Brown & Jones.


  3.

PARIS, telul 15id, 1887.

Söles Sotoff e Ko., spulals,

in Kostroma:

Söls :

Penunob fa S. Alexandroff, spodel olsik in zif at, das nedols konodeli sevöl, plä jäfs patik tedadoma olsik, magavi e volapüki.

Labedob sevis pevipöl e sikodo dälob obe lofön oles dünis obik plo cäl vagik.

Ss. Gaudin e Langlois in zif obsik lä kels binob pecälöl, sis yels mödumik, okanoms givön oles nünis valik kelis odesidols tefü ob. Lemäno fösefob olis das osteifob melidön konfidi keli ugivols obe.

Valadöl gepüki gönik olsik, blibob.

D. O.

Guérin.


4.

[Blufapened xama al getön dipedi as Spodal Volapükik de Volapükaklub Flentik, 1887.]

PARIS, lulul 22id, 1887.

Söle Nicolescu in Jassi:

Potob ole atoso cänapenedis tel suköl :  

   Fr. 5000,  mälul balid su Stihi e Ko. 
  ---  2500,  velul balselulid su Vladescu
Suam :  Fr. 7500, su zif olik.

Noelolös geti omas e kadolös omis klödatü kal obik. Falo pel panevilom, begob oli plotetön te cänapenedi su Vladescu.

Nunob oli otüpo das ecänapenedob adelo su ol :

Fr. 6000 büdü Diamandi mul bal sis dät.

Noetolös cänapenedi obik e lasumolös omi gudiko.

Dünan olik divodikün,

Fould.


5.

BOSTON, 1887, babul l5id.  

Labobs stimi nunön oles das eleblimobs in zif at fablüdi sobas, labül fiami, JAMES ROBINSON AND COMPANY. Begobs olis noetön disopenädis kopanalas e bestimön obis lesuno ko boneds olik, kelas pömetobs befulami kuladik.

James Robinson,

Peter Wilkins.


6.

[Blufapened xamas flentik, 1886.]

ODESSA, kilul 6id, I886.

Söles Lacour e Burdel, vinatedals,

Bordeaux:

Sedolsös obe dub medam Sölas Charlier e Ko., sedans in zif olsik, segun stips kösömik tedadoma olsik, sotis difik de vins e ligs kels sukoms :

Saint Julien, yel 1878, . . . . . . . flads 300.
Graves, vietik, yel 1855. . . . . . otos l50.
Vve. Cliquot, . . . . . . . . . flads lafik 200.
Chartreuse, liköf balid, . . . . . . liäts 50.

Abinoböv vemo kotenik if äkanob-la getön bonedi obik büfü fin mula at.

Besäkolsös Söli Melnikoff in Marseilles, flen e kolänan obik, dö klödat keli tedadom obik melidom; söl at egivom obe völadalisedi olsik e ekomedom levemo vinis olsik.

Spelöl das sek jäfa at balid okodom suno bonedamis nulik, blibob

dünan olsik divodikün,

Gruzentzeff 

 

LILÄDAM.


1.

BISIEDAL GARFIELD.

Dun balid söla Garfield, bisiedal de Tats pebalöl na finam cälama oma as bisiedal Pübliga legletik et, äbinom kidön moti e jimateli omik len stunam e betikälam de cifals gletik e pop nenumlik läna et, kels äbinoms plisenik zäle eit.

Kikod edunom atosi? Ibo mote oma edebom sibini, nulüdi e dadukami, kels eblinoms ome diniti mayedikün fataläna omik; ed in jimatel oma ituvom jikopaneli fiedik, divodik, fägik e stimlik in lefulön debis jimatelik e domik!

O net läbik! Ol labedöl regalis aistümöl ed aistimöl tugi e fetanis famülik!

Joseph Holden (nelijel).


2.

KON

Läd nelijik polöl dogi smalik in lams ofik, lüodof äl valadasäl stajena de Lyon.

Pecälel sembal leloda stopom ofi e sagom:

,,Läd, no kanol bekipön dogi olik ko ol.''

,,Desibob bekipön omi ko ob.''

,,Atos binos nemögik. Dogs binoms papolöl delidü tävels e paninkiköl in lelodavab patik.''

,,No oninkikol obiki!''

,,Oninkikob oliki i: sesum nonik sibinom.''

,,Osiadob omi in tävasak obik.''

,,Atos binos nemögik.''

,,Esiadob egelo omi in sak obik in Nelij.''

,,In Flent, mutol konfidön dogi olik pecäleles leloda e pelön poli.''

,,No opelob. Lüvob dogi ole.''

,,Benüno, Läd.''

Läd mürof setis anik zunik e givof dogi pecälele. At summon nimi ab gegivom omi foviko, zenodü smils bösetik tävelas. Dog päfulom ko stol!

Guigues (flentel).


3.

NAPOLEONA POKAGLOK.

Napoleon äbinom son lavogela Bonaparte baonik ab no liegik. Nag ilefulom studis omik su jul militik in Paris, päcälom as liötan känemik. In tim ot älemom oke, de fenigs pespalöl pokagloki silefik, cinüfadi badik e nedelidik, kel äskanom omi levemo in vigs balid. Ven mon ädefom liötane pöfik kelos ofen äzitos, äpanom gloki oma.

In balmil jöltum päsevokom as limep flentik. Id as lelimep, kel rigetom divis valik yulopik äipolom pokagloki bäledatik. In pug de Marengo, Napoleon äsäkom düke de Montebello, kel ästadom lä om, düp kimid äbinos. ,,Pokaglok oba takom denu,'' fovom Napoleon smülöl ed äjonom su eti: ,,Luglok vetik et eikopanom obi su lifaveg oba; sikod oiledivob omi.'' Vo päikonsefom in famül Napoleonas as meb kostik len fatasked legletik.

Äkopanom Napoleoni balid al Elba ed al St. Helena, e ven ädeilom in balmil jöltum telsebal ägelütom gloki sone oma balsebal-yelik kel äblibom in Schönbrunn nilü Wien, ledom omika fatela Franz I de Löstakin.

Pos kela deil ägekömom al famüli; e ven Napoleon kilid pävikodom lä Sedan, äpolom pokagloki bäledatik; kopanom omi al Chislehurst; kilna sukom Napoleone votik al läni foginik. Jilimep Eugènie, jiviudel limepa flentik lätik äkonsefom pokagloki plo son ofa Louis, as pul penemöl ,,Lulu.'' Napoleon folid ädeilom nog yunik, fagik de fatän omik li foetäbs Fikopa sulüdik.

Id om äpolom gloki; ab jonels äjonoms suno düpi lätik oma. Fun omik pätuvom peseklotöl. Bo polom eiti nu Zulu sembal as deki su blöt blonik oma. Ko Napoleon lätik pölüdomok pokaglok.

Vomül de Keiser (jinedänel).


4.

JOHANN MARTIN SCHLEYER.
(picture of Schleyer here)   Pämotom in Oberlauda, in Badän, e labom nu lifayelis lulsemäl. Estudom pükis plu ka luls. Äpübom balidna in yel 1879 volapüki omik, kel nu pasevom e pagebom su vol lölik

Mödikna iblüfon datikön püki valemik u bevünetik, e blüfs et pämekoms fa mens sapik ed estudik; ab blüfam nonik pliasumom in gebi plägik.

Datikel döla at legletik emelidom läsevami e danöfi menada valik, ab lifom nu in Konstanz de bäledamon smalik pagetöl as pädel glüga romik katolik. No-li binos blig e gälod volapükeles yufön omi?


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